Study Guides (247,972)
Canada (121,208)
Psychology (835)
PSY240H5 (37)

PSY240 Notes before Midterm.pdf

7 Pages
Unlock Document

Hywel Morgan

Intro to abnormal  it's easy to identify than it is to define abnormal behavior  depression as an example o hmm what's the definition?  sad affect  lost of enjoyment of usual enjoyable things o but we experience that sometimes too o when does it become abnormal?  when extends over a long period of time  sad affect doesn't go away, NOT NORMAL  duration, intensity...  STATISTICAL CRITERIA o psych is a science, which means we use the methodology of collecting data  bell curve from behavior of people  the middle will be the norm! the average people response o hmm, example what color is the jacket? black, the norm, tree? hmm schizo! psychoses o disregards deviant behaviors that are favorable, accepts most common behaviors  glaring example, intelligence! is above average intelligence abnormal? pathological ?  this is the problem with this definition o also includes common behaviors that are unfavorable  eg drug use, it's the norm to participate, but society says abnormal o factors other than mere occurrence may override statistical considerations  CULTURAL NORMS o alcohol usage not common in Muslim communities Jewish communities, but it's normal in western societies o DSM isn't the common diagnostic, ICD 10 is more common around the world, published by the WHO, it does differ from DSM o in general most cultures recognize behaviors that reduce interfere or destruct the individuals personal and social adjustment, abnormal o cultural norms are often situationally defined, depends on what the situation is!  hmm public nudity or showering in the gym?  behaviors regarding age, child hitting parent, or adult violence  DEVELOPMENTAL NORMS o milestones, development stages o child wetting the bed, age three or age ten  FREQUENCY, INTENSITY, DURATION o current methods o we try to measure these things  how anxious are you  how many times a day  etiological models of abnormal behavior, CAUSES o psychology is a paradigmatic science, different ways of conceptualizing things  both the strength and weakness of this field o MEDICAL DISEASE MODEL (nature)  genetic  genes are the underlying  for some psychiatric disorders, there are gene markers  studied by observing identical twins, hmm no they don't have the same diseases!  but um concordance rate is around fifty percent, but not the same genes? one percent ish so CLEARLY there is a genetic component  biochemical  schizo? too much dopamine, biochemical markers  depression, abnormal serotonin levels dopamine levels norepinephrine levels  anxiety? GABA abnormal levels  neurophysiological  I.e. brain not functioning properly  inherited, ..., or ....  ADHD children, we know the frontal lobe is to functioning properly  anxiety, amygdala not functioning properly  psychoanalytic  Freud was first to propose psychopathology came from the inside, he was a medical doctor though o ENVIRONMENTAL MODEL (nurture)  external variables, economic, cultural, etc  sociocultural models  family, socioeconomic status, urban vs rural, cultural religious affiliations ...  learning models  classical and operant conditioning  we can recondition the person!  straightforward treatment  hmm anxiety, phobia? irrational! lets teach you other wise, recondition, replace with other thoughts  humanistic models  some people put a third category for this  touchy feeling psychology  stresses the experience and the individual reaction to themselves and the world  hmm you have the skills, we just have to find the right environment  whole person, present functioning and future possibilities  respects the worth of people and the choices that people make  hmm unconditional positive regard ASSESSMENT  consider a case of long term sad affect o initial diagnosis is depression o but may be incorrect! might not be the whole story, might be other psych disorders influencing this, or physiological factors o note the potential for misdiagnosis becuase of symptom overlap o so we try to quuantify sympptoms that reliably go together, syndromes o was the problem of DSM, validity issues  referral o first part of the whole procedure o "what brought you here today?" o this is the quick and dirty initial assessment  clinnical methods, tools of assessment o the interview  most important (in adults)  structured and unstructured interviews  structured means a set list of questions on paper that covers all aspects of the patients life, it is long and exhausting  advantage is thoroughness, nothing will be missed  raport, this results in poor rapport, patient not happy  unstructured means free to ask any questions thought appropriate to the working hypothesis  high in rapport but low in validity and reliability o clinical observations  deportment: appropriate or inappropriate  physical appearance and deformities, cuts and bruises? abuse selff mutilation epilepsy  relationships when possible, appropriatee or inappropriate  affect: nervousness or anxiety  hmm countertransferrence in morgan example off passive aggressive patient o psychological tests  exclusive field of psychologists, no other mental health profession does psychological testing  every two years anew manual is developed  two types: cognitive or intellectual tests and personality or affect tests  the WAIS test: weschler adult intelligence scale  at least 2 to 3 hours to administer  verbal functioning and visio-spacial functioning  personality tests  there are a large number of personality tests  the most common is MMPI minneasota muliphasic personality inventory, asks questions about different aspects of your personality  these tests give us quantitative results, compares to the rest of people o behavioural assessment  like clinical observations bbut much more structured  behaviours are expected DIAGNOSIS  imformation will be supplemented by more information outside of the textbook  what is the most obvious benefit of diagnosis, selection and implementation of treatment  significant harm in our society is stigma, eg people with schizo being called schizophrenics, wrong!  clinically derived systems: o DSM IV or the newest V o ICD is the other system other countrries use, international classification of diseases o for the most part, over 99% compatible, goals of DSM V was to achieve 100% o DSM is published by the american psychiatric association o ICD is published by the WHO under the UN o note, here in canada physicians are required to record diseases for stats purposes and they use the ICD coding system o this is actually the seventh edition of DSM, dsm, 2, 3, 3R, 4, 4TR, 5  what makes for a good classification system (clusters of symptoms) o categories need to be clearly defined  mood disorders of mania and sadness, used to be together in IV now seperated in V  four had category childhood and adolescence, eliminated and put together with similar symptoms o the categories must exist  misdiagnosis probability is very high due to high symptom overlap o reliability  ie consistency  same conclusion from different people diagnosing set symptoms: interrater reliability  five has tried to make diagnosis more inclusive, not so strict standards, critics say comprimise reliability, over diagnosis o validity  four wasnt so good, symptom overlap, significant potential for misdiagnosis  defines categories clearly discriminable o clinical utillity  is it clinically useful? DSM yes  it is useful in selecting a treatment  factor analysis o concept in statistics o large amounts of data collected and trends in the data are analyzed o basically looking at everything in the environment that changes o useful in discovering common symptom clusters o the other major goal of five was to use factor analysis to determine diagnosis, they failed however, attempt to become an imperically devised system o remains a clinically derived system, where people decide on experience and consensus among experts  mulitaxial diagnosis system from four, different ways to diagnosis o axis 1 complaint  issue of comorbiditiy, say anxiety and depression  common in psychopathology o axis 2 relatively permanent  personality  mental retardation, intellectual development disorder o axis 3 relevant physical conditions  somatoform disorders o axis 4 severity of psychosocial stress  prognosis is lots of stress is not good for you, not likely to get better  hmm reduce stress  remains in section three of DSM V o axis 5 global assessment of functioning in the past year  0 low functioning to 100  prognostic value for below 50 not function well  completely eliminated  DSM V three sections o 1 indicating utility of this system o 2 categories themselves o 3 future considerations and expllanation of elimination of axis system as well as severity of psychosocial stresses LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES 1. what is legal o laws are a set of rules that tell you how you must behave (or must not) 2. what is ethical o laws are based on ethics, ethics are based on morals, morals change from time to time o ethics are what you should do  some things are unethical but not illegal, eg sex with clients? lose license but no jail 3. legal issues 1. people in social conflict  most often reason people seek treatment  laws are about social interaction, sometimes social interaction plus mental issues can become illegal, violence etc
More Less

Related notes for PSY240H5

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.