Chapter 8 (Questions)

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Alison Fleming

Chapter 8: Hormones and Sex 1. What is cloacal exstrophy? (p. 202) 2. What is the point of this chapter? (p.203) PART I: THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Hormones Act in a Great Variety of Ways throughout the Body 1. What again do the body’s cells use to communicate? Where do hormones come from? How do they affect behaviour?(p. 204) 2. Who was Arnold Berthold and what was his contribution to our understanding of how hormones affect behaviour (p. 205) 3. What are the 4 chemical signals used by the body that we have seen so far (p. 206-207) 4. What are the 3 categories of hormones (p. 207-208, Figure 8.4) 5. Why are these different categories of hormones important to know? (p. 208) Hormones Act on a Wide Variety of Cellular Mechanisms 1. How do protein and amine hormones exert their influences on target organs? (p.208) 2. How do steroid hormones exert their influence on target organs? (p. 209) 3. Describe some techniques of modern behavioural endocrinology? (Box 8.1, p. 210) 4. Hormones can have different effects on different target organs—True or False? (p. 211-212, Figure 8.6) Each Endocrine Gland Secretes Specific Hormones 1. What is the pituitary gland? (p. 212) 2. What are neuroendocrine cells? (Figure 8.7, p. 212) 3. What are the two parts of the pituitary? (p. 212-216) 4. Explain the milk letdown reflex. (Figure 8.9, p. 214) 5. How is hormone secretion regulated in the posterior pituitary? (p. 215) 6. Define negative feedback. (Figure 8.11, p. 216) 7. How does negative feedback work for the anterior pituitary? (Figure 8.11, p. 216) 8. How is hormone secretion regulated in the anterior pituitary? (Figure 8.12, p.216) 9. What are gonadotropins? How does the anterior pituitary play a role in the production of gonadtropins (relate back to a.p. process)? (p. 219) 10. Which 2 anterior pituitary tropic hormones affect the production of gonadtropins? (Figure 8.13, p.219-220) 11. Which hormones do gonads produce in regulating reproductive and parental behaviours? (p. 219-221) 12. How is hormone secretion different in ovaries than in testes? (p. 221) 13. Describe the ovulatory cycle. (p. 221) 14. What are oral contraceptives? (p. 221) 15. Specific steroids are exclusive to males and females—True or false? (p. 221) 16. How do the endocrine and nervous systems affect each other? Explain the 4 signals/5 processes involved between hormones and behaviour. (Figure 8.14, p. 221) 17. Explain how the interactions between endocrine activity and behaviour are said to be cyclical. (Figure 8.15, p. 222) PART II: REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOUR Reproductive Behaviour Can Be Divided into Four Stages 1. What are the 4 stages of reproductive behaviour? (p. 223-225) 2. What is lordosis? (p. 225) 3. Define activational effect. (p. 225) 4. “Individual differences in sexual activity are not determined by differences in androgen levels.” Explain how t
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