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Test 1 questions + answers.docx
Test 1 questions + answers.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Stuart Kamenetsky

maturationfixed action patternsniche pickingmultifinalityface to face exchangesreflex smileage cohortstwin studies emotional display rulesequential designearly determinismspecimen descriptionstime samplingevent samplingspecimen recordphenotypepassive geneenv associationsociobiologygeneenvironment G x E temperamentbiological regulationmodeltype B attachmenttopic sharingexternalizing problemsclear cut attachmentsensitivity hypothesisseparation distressduchenne smilesocial referencingstrange situationtransactional principleinternal working modelcrosssectional designsocial smileecological validity emotional scriptexperience sampling methodDEFINITIONSmaturation biologically determined process of growth that unfolds over a period of time multifinality the divergence of developmental paths in which two individuals start out similarly but end at very different pointsemotional scripts used by children to identify and predict emotional reactions to specific events This collection contains a more complete understanding of the meaning of emotion terms and the situations that evoke diff types of feelingsage cohorts people who were born in the same time period and share historical experiencesie people born in the 80s were adolescents in the 90s when internet use exploded and changed the way we communicate twin studies MZ 100 same genes and DZ 50 same genes twins are compared assumption is that twins share same env differences btwn MZ are due to env whereas such differences in DZ twins are due to a combo of env and genetic factors geneenv model genes are expressed in overt beh only under certain env conditions and conversely specific env affect only individuals with particular genetic predispositionsphenotype the physical expression of an individuals phenotype after interaction with the envseparation distress this is what occurs when a baby is separated from the mother and feels insecure and alone ie type A C and D in strange situationecological validity the methods materials and setting of the study must approximate the realworld that is being examinedexperience sampling method also known as daily diary method research methodology that asks participants to stop at certain times and make notes of their experience in real time internal working model a personal mental representation of him or herself as a child their parents and hisher interaction with their parents fixed action patterns stereotyped responses that are activated by specific stimuli These responses are genetic and are unlike reflexes bc they can be modified according to the env ie smiling crying rootingface to face exchanges this is a stage in interactional dev 25mo to regulate mutual attention and responsiveness in face to face situations eye to eye interaction is required at this stage direct eye contact first social smilespassive geneenv association parents with certain genetic predisposition create an env that favours their genetic predisposition Thus children are further exposed to this genetic predispositiontype b attachment this is characterized by secure attachment children are only slightly upset when parent leaves but welcomes back openly upon arrival these children feel free to explore novel areas with mom present this can be seen thru the strange situation paradigm cross sectional design btwn subject design researchers compose individuals of different ages at the same time this research design is economic but has no knowledge over change and why change happens niche picking children or individuals select env a niche that is compatible with their genetic predispositions or traits ie if temperamentally social choose to live on residence with other social individualsbiological regulation a stage of attachment that occurs at 02months Babies come with their biological needs that need to be regulated ie sleeping and eating patterns so that ideally gradually they have regular sleeping and eating patterns
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