Lecture notes and notes from book (Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology)

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY318H5
Professor
Melissa Holmes
Semester
Winter

Description
Introto Neuropsych(contd):Origins of theHuman Brainand Behaviour January-05-10 7:15PM Originsofthe HumanBrain andBehavior(50:00) { Slide44 { Cladogram Graphthat illustratestherelativetimeoforiginofvariouscloselyrelatedgroups Originsofthe HumanBrain andBehavior { PrimateOrder Excellentcolorvision,enhanceddepthperception Hand-eyecoordination Femalesproduceoneinfantperpregnancy { Hominids Humanlikeancestorsthatdivergedfromtheapelineage Changesinhandstructureandbrainstructure SpeciesComparison { Slide46 { WhyStudyNonhumanAnimals? Brainsimilaritiesanddifferencesinhumansandanimalsprovideinsighttobrain-behavior relationships Animalshavelesscomplexanatomy Geneticbasisofbehaviorcanbestudiedinanimalswithshortlifespans(i.e.fruitflies-also veryshortgenerationtime) Identifyhowthebrainhasevolved QuestionsAddressedbyStudyingNonhumanAnimals { Understandingbrainmechanisms Usescrossspeciescomparisonstounderstandbasicbrainfunctionforagivenbehavior Rat:brainverymuch likehumans;corticalfunctionissimilartohumans Slugs:usedinstudyinghowneuronsinterconnecttoproducebehaviour becausetheirNSis relativelysimple Fruitflies:usedforstudyinggeneticbasisofbehaviourbecausemanygenerationsofflies withNSalterationscanbebredquickly { Genes:functionalunitsthatcontrolthetransmissionandexpressionoftraitsfromonegeneration tothenext { Designinganimalmodelsofhumanneurologicaldisorders Researchersproduceahumanneurologicaldisorderinananimal Causeandtreatmentforthediseasecanbeexaminedthroughmanipulationofvariables QuestionsAddressedbyStudyingNonhumanAnimals { Understandingbrainmechanisms Pax-generesponsibleforeyedevelopmentinallseeinganimals Homeoboxgenes-dictatebodysegmentationinfruitfliesandhumans DifferencesinstructureoftheeyeandNSindifferentanimalspeciesduetomutations { Designinganimalmodels { Describingthephylogenetic (evolutionary)developmentofthebrain Looksat animalsintheirenvironmentstoseehowtheenvironmentshapesevolutionofthe brainandbehavior Makescomparisonsbetweenhumansandothermammals;lookforcommonalities Differencesinbrainsandbehaviorsprovideinsightintohowthosedifferencesappeared Quasi-evolutionarySequence { Slide49 { Hypotheticalsequenceofanimalsthatrepresentconsecutivestagesinevolutionaryhistory { Canbeusedto investigatetheneuralbasisfortheoriginsofbehavior www.notesolution.com
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