RLG202H5 Study Guide - Final Guide: Nahmanides, Rashi, Nicholas Donin

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Published on 3 Oct 2016
School
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Judaism Final Exam Notes
NOTE:
Writing in Black are factual points
Writing in blue are examples
Writing in green is my own thoughts
Writing in purple are important points
Writing in orange are people
*TIP*
General mode to follow
Include the term origin,time period, historical significance and how it
shapes Judaism today
Aliyah
Act of “moving up” to the land of Jerusalem/Israel
Opposes “yerida” which means “descent”
Word itself found in 2nd Chronicles 36:23
Happened in 1946 after the Holocaust
Jews from Europe and the Middle East who wanted to form a
Jewish State
Ba’al Shem Tov
Real name Israel ben Eliezer (1700-1760)
Founded the Hasidic (Pious) Movement
"For him to be a Hasid meant to utilize one's connection to the divine for
the entire community; the people Israel become his client" (Satlow, 278)
Preached that sincere intention is more important than the study of sacred
texts or the punctilious observance of halakhah
Der Judenstaat
Written by Theodor Herzl in 1896 (The Jewish State)
Often seen as the beginning of political Zionism
Prompted the Dreyfus affair
Herzl said that Israel is a country formed by outside forces pushing Jews
together
Eruv
Ritual enclosure that merges domains
Boundary that transforms (in a narrow legal sense) a "public" space
into a "private" space by encircling it
Allows for all forms of carrying within that space
Used during shabbat
oNot allowed to do any work during shabbat including carrying
things. This is rather impractical, thus entering the concept of the
eruv.
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Rabbinic period origin
Example: old, walled city of jerusalem
Haskalah
Movement emerges from 18th and 19th century out of Berlin
Movement to align traditional Jewish life with modern values
Consider a spectrum with tradition on one side and modernity on the other
Maskilim are enlighteners who sought to apply the values and methods of
the enlightenment to traditional Jewish texts
European philosophical movement towards liberty, progression, reason,
tolerance, freedom and reevaluating
Hasidim
Comes from the Hebrew word for "pious"
Draws upon Jewish mysticism abd promotes spirituality as the
fundamental aspect of faith
Assign great spiritual power to a rebbe, who is referred to as a tzadik
(intermediatiary between heaven and earth)
Founded by Ba'al Shem Tov
Combines ideas that humans can use divine power for their own benefit
and that ordinary Jews can make a cosmic impact
Hillel
Said to have lived around the turn of the century
One of the most important immediate progenitors of the rabbis
Founded Beit Hillel
Story about how Shammai and Hillel disagree
Order of shabbat prayers
oHillel says the wine should come first and then the day starts
In Judaism, a new day begins when the sun sets
Chanukah candles
oShammai says that Jews should light them all at once
oHillel says one at a time because with holy things, you go up
Kabbalah
"heirs of tradition" as a form of Jewish mysticism
Origins in Tanakh, Mishnah, Talmud and hekhalot
Hasidism considered popular Kabbalah in Eastern European Jewry
Literature "Sefer HaBent" (Book of Illumination) and the Zohar (Splendour)
See scripture through the eyes of the rabbis
Karaism
Movement in the geonic period that rejected the Oral Torah and authority
of the rabbis
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Mid-eighth century, Persian Jew named Anan ben David who was
alarmed by the divergence between the Hebrew Bible and the traditions of
the Rabbis
Think Martin Luther
Rejected rabbinical interpretation to return to scripture
Refracts its' understanding of Judaism through a wider, cultural lens
oThe rabbis subverted authority of scripture and threatened
authenticity of living according to God's will
Kashrut
Set of dietary laws
Permissable mammals must have cloven hoofs and chew their cud
Kosher and non-kosher birds
Fish that have both fins and scales
Significance today
Halav yisrael
oWas previously dismissed but there is now a growing
amount of Jews who follow it
oExtremely strict kosher laws
oCreates a division amongst Orthodox Jews
oSupervision of milking to ensure the kosher status
Maimonides
Rabbi Moses ben Maimon (1135/1148) - 1204
Author of a few works of literature
Thirteen principles of faith (found in commentary to the Mishnah)
oWritten in Arabic
oHis view on the essentials of Judaism
"I believe in full faith the existence of God"
Guide for the Perplexed
oWritten in Arabic
oFor the person whose study in reason conflicts with belief in
law
oReason vs revelation
Mishneh Torah
oWritten in Mishnaic Hebrew
o"repetition of the Torah"
oNor arranged by scriptural or talmudic orders
Arranged by topic
oDivided into 14 categories
oBegins with a summary of essential beliefs and foundations
of halakhah presented throughout the code
Midrash
A distinctive rabbinic genre of biblical interpretation
"seeking" the biblical texts
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