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Sociology Notes-Test 1

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Sociology - Study Guide to the Core Assumption of the Four Theoretical Perspectives
 11/30/2011 6:19:00 PM 
 Functionalism Society is conceptualized as a system comprising interrelated parts or institutions (e.g., family, polity, law, education). These parts function to meet the needs of the society. The systems characterized by dynamic equilibrium, meaning that it remains relatively stable and balanced over generations, although always absorbing and adapting to change. 
 Research Focus
 Focus is on how institutions are structured, and the functions they perform; how stability is maintained over generations; how the system adapts to changes in external environment. Examples of institutions include: family, which functions to care for children, meet emotional and nurturing needs of people; education, which functions to teach knowledge and skills for adult roles, and cultural values and standards of behaviour; economy, which functions to produce and distribute material goods and services; and law, which functions to maintain order and control deviance. Each institution is also a system made up of smaller parts (e.g., a primary school comprises of set of roles-- teacher, pupil janitor, parent. Each role set performs functions for the school system as a whole. Role expectations are stable over time, but also adapt to changing social needs. Variation in Function Manifest functions- intended functions (e.g., teach knowledge and skills) Latent functions- unintended but important consequences (e.g., schools provide social space for children to meet, and to supervise teenagers) Dysfunctions- unintended negative consequences for society (e.g., schools isolate young people from adults, label some children as “failures”) Core Processes Integrating Individuals into Social Systems 1. Roles: the smallest part of social organizations Roles comprise typical or expected patterns of behaviour. Individuals perform roles in the system (e.g., role of teacher, principal, pupil, parent, assistant). Role set comprises all the roles that one role incumbent interacts with, or sometimes all the roles that one individual plays. Role strain refers to conflicting expectations and other stresses inherent in a role. Socialization: the process of learning the role expectations and associated values Primary socialization occurs in infancy, particularly in the family. Secondary socialization occurs in public institutions (e.g., school, church, media). Internalization is the process of absorbing role expectations and values as part of oneself. 
 3. Culture: the flexible system of core values, meanings, and expectations of society that are transmitted across generations through socialization. These shared values integrate parts of society into a dynamic whole. 
 Subcultures share most of the values of the majority of society, but differ in some elements, like religion, mother tongue, occupational values, and the like. Control over conflict and deviance:
 Conformity is usually voluntary. As socialized learned values. We desire approval and acceptance by people close to us. When these informal controls fail, economic sanctions are imposed, with force and punishment as a last resort.
 Conditions under which Social Order Breaks Down 
 1. faulty socialization, as when parents and significant others are poor role models, teaching bad values; family relations are strained or broken; or people learn deviant subcultural values in high-crime neighbourhoods
 2. inconsistent role expectations and values, as when parental values clash with school or with media, resulting in confusion and limited internalization of values
 3. social systems fail to adapt to external change
 4. extreme ethnic diversity threatens integration 
 Anomie- the collapse of community values
 RESEARCH THEORIES- Lecture Notes on Sept 20th 
 human research- ethical privacy 
 - fundamental rule: DO NO HARM e.g., reading a question that is familiar and connects one to an unstable state where they are emotionally affected in a negative way such as sadness or hurt. Possible repercussions: get sued.
 Secondary data- collected by someone else
 Primary data- collected by oneself
 - cannot use data that is unethical 
 - statistics from Stats Canada is acceptable and costly
 research needs theoretical theory- beginning of chapter
 - theoretical research- generally sociologist use one of the 4 paradigms when it comes to research (functionalism, political economy, social constructionism, and feminism. feminist; gender forms anything in social situations
 fundamental- gender relations
 They all have flaws whatever suits best research is the likely method they would use for their research. 
 Fields of divided research: quantitative and qualitative research &
 quantitative research
 Quantitative Research Numerical and statistical Functionalism, Marxism or political economy 
 Why? - Social structures lend themselves to measurements 
 e.g. social class (upper, upper lower, upper middle, middle/working, low class)
 Qualitative research nature of social life amoung individuals - closely related to through symbolic-interaction and ethnomethodology field notes few individuals needed for research Constructionism theory - Problems that in the 1950s- 1970s:
 researches were are all males, males worked under capitalism but women did not
 - they were issues with both types of data
 Types of Scientific Research
 - objective measurement 
 - very large amounts of individuals (1000’s/groups)
 Samples- 2 samples They are either sample or statistic 
 - non random/ non probability
 - probability/ random sample
 - estimate population parameters
 Casual explanations: (because) (cause result)
 e.g. education/ loans 
 there are two Types of variables - independent & - dependent 
 Education depends on income - e.g., you cannot afford university because there is not enough income coming in. Therefore you cannot attend university.
 Never measure by mean, Mean is when you add up the amount of results you have and divide it by the amount of results you have. 
 11/30/2011 6:19:00 PM Political Economy 
 Society is a system comprising interrelated parts or institutions. Relations of inequality, power, and dominance, in which conflict and struggle are endemic features, characterize social systems. The economy, defined by how a society organizes production and distribution, structures all features of society. Capitalism, as the prevailing mode of production, is based on the private ownership of means of production or “capital: (land, tools, resources, money). It is viewed as an inherently in egalitarian and exploitative system. Capitalism gives rise to two great classes of people: Capitalists, who own the means of production, and wage-workers, who sell their labour power to the capitalists for wages because they have no means to produce for themselves. The labour power of workers generates profit for capitalists. 
 How Capitalism Works
 Capitalists compete to produce commodities to
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