Soc209- lc 4 - jan 23 2012
Criminal Justice and Diversity
Annotated Bibliography: Use APA Format for the essay.
Gender and Crime
- Crime rates - women in conflict with the law - women are charged with fewer
offences then men - and also less serious crimes.
- that includes: theft under 5,000 (including shop lifting), prostitution, common assault
- number one assault (for eg fighting in the bar), possession of marijuana, trafficking
positions - 55% of them are these kinds of charges laid against women.
= 55% for theft under, assault level 1, fraud, prostitution and trafficking - significantly
charged with fewer violent crimes and less crimes in general.
-in terms of statistical profile - Commonalities there is a history of victimization.
- Profile of Women Offenders
a. History of victimization - 2002 study, 72% sentenced women at a victimization
passed. 82% of federally sentenced women were sentenced victimization and 90% of
aboriginal women who are in conflict or charged or sentenced have a physical or sexual
abuse in their past. Substance abuse: 42% have addiction problems for eg. Unlike
males, their addiction is connected to their abuse of drugs, past or experience of
b. Economic marginalization - theft,, shop lifting, fraud, prostitution - reflects the
poverty that a lot of women experience who are in conflict with the law.
- for eg, single parent families, single mothers - almost 1/4 (24%) Canadian women
raising children on their own are poor or what we would define as poor.
- women raising children on their own are more then likely to be 5 times as poor -
living on your own also ties to senior - older women living on their own is 13 times
-Aboriginal women in poverty - more than double the rates of other Canadians - also
includes immigrant women - because they also face economic marginalization.
c. Types of Crimes Committed by Women
1. Theft - more women are charged with this than any other single crime. - under ,5,
000. - majority of women who are kept under this heading - shop lifted for themselves
or their children. - the typically shop lift - clothes, food and make up. Items that they
need or they feel that they need or cant afford. Interestingly the number of women
charged with theft increases in August - school - preparing their children for school -
they peak in December and tail off for the rest of the year.
- the December is the month with the highest amount of charges.
- maximum penalty: 6 months incarceration, 2 months probation or both. - doesn't
involve jail term for first time offender. - as a result, legal aid lawyers are not available
o provide offence or representation of women.
2. Assault: since 1983 - the charges for women for this have almost doubled. since
1983- domestic policies start to change - and we realize that we don't think you should
be able to beat your wife or accept this practice. Over time, it gets more complicated
because women don't necessarily report these acts to the police etc. There are difficult
complex factors. (Private Matters) Police engaged in over charging, (maybe the wife is defending herself,) Police say: both are getting charge. this is what leads to a dramatic
increase in assaults - no drop policy because it was a domestic dispute.
3. Fraud: majority women who are incarcerated for welfare fraud are incarcerated for
two months. Welfare is extremely gendered. Its women's deeper experience of poverty
that leads them to seek government support. This leads to the point where: the poor are
poor and don't deserve anything. This fear of the welfare cheat catches on but is not as
widespread as once believed. Quebec claimed that they lost 30 million dollars in a year
on welfare fraud. The study found that when they did crack down the government made
3 million dollars. More people cheat on their income taxes.
4. Drug offences- arrives from possession or trafficking of marijuana. Typically women
offenders don't really play a substantial role in trafficking. In most cases, women are
drug curriers or drug mules.
5. Prostitution: arrested for communicating offences or street prostitution. Prostution is
itself illegal. Everything around the act is illegal- communicating for the purposes of
prostitiuon is illegal, living off the avails of prostution is illegal - you can engage but
you cant communicate to others, you cant really make money off it etc. The reason why
you see a lot of women in prostitution offences is because they are visible in the street
communicating. People living in poverty engage this act in the streets.
- cant go to the police if there is something wrong. - sheer dangerousness.
6. Non- payment of Fines: fines we see most commonly issued under the influence. -
alternative to confinement, incarceration. Also for moral charges - prostitution. Vast
majority of people admitted to prison are there because they have no money to pay the
fine. A lot of women admitted to prison because of fine defaulting. (default of
payment) Large majority of people admitted to prison because of fine defaults. 1990
study - female inmates was 47% in Saskatchewan were there for fine defaults., 39% in
Alberta, 30% in Manitoba, 29% in Ontario, 22% in Quebec. Single parent women-
mothers were particularly a failure to these programs and had to go back to prison
because they were doing other jobs. In terms of bail - the consequences of receiving
bail - are serious for men and women. There is a negative consequence for those who
are on bail -they are more likely to be found guilty. the proportion of females were 24%
released on bail. Similarly to the males, 25% were also held in 'freeman?' - although the
numbers are equal - there is an unequal treatment happening.
- Aboriginal women re 2.4 times more likely held on reman than non aboriginal
women. Black women are incarcerated - (Commission of systemic...) in a rate that is
seven times higher than for white women.
- Black women are disproportionally denied bail.
Race and Crime: Why the over representation of Aboriginal offenders in the criminal
- colonial argument
- when looking at the law in Canada - a lot of it was looking at the aboriginals to
educate them but also put them in their place.
that the justice system has this colonial prejudice till this day. - not only they were
forced out of place