Final Exam Notes for SOC232.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC232H5
Professor
Erik Schneiderhan
Semester
Fall

Description
Final Exam Notes for SOC232 Lecture 1 • Smith, “Knowing a Society from Within: A Woman’s Standpoint,” • De Beauvoir, “Woman as Other,” • King Jr., “The Power of Nonviolent Action,” • Friedan, “The Problem That Has No Name,” • Chodorow, “Gender Personality and the Reproduction of Mothering,” • Foucault, “Power as Knowledge,” • Harstock, “A New Theory of Power for Women?” Theme: Women oppression Dorothy Smith “Knowing a Society from Within: A Woman’s Standpoint” • Stuff she is writing about is called: Standpoint theory • A standpoint is a place from which one views and sees the world that determines both what one focuses on as well as what is obscured. • Depending on one's situation, one's standpoint may vary from that of another individual who may be of a similar status. • Standpoint feminism makes the case that because women's lives and roles in almost all societies are significantly different from men's; women hold a different type of knowledge. • Their location as a subordinated group allows women to see and understand the world in ways that are different and challenging to the existing male-biased conventional wisdom • The only way of knowing the socially constructed world is knowing from within • You can never stand outside it and know it • We try to make sense of things based on our knowledge • It not about perspective example: of being on a train • Lets come at it from a different standpoint • She see’s a family out there • She using herself, problematizing herself, The way I understand what I saw, its in my terms, I’m looking at them • My Terms for understanding them (Indian, Family, Train) These nouns, adjectives describing what she is seeing and making sense of it, not the people on the ground at the station • Train example  Smith looks out of the train and sees an Indian First Nations standing on the side of the tracks holding her children accompanied by a man. They seem like a family. What is the point of this? She is taking her standpoint and creating her own terms to refer to them – the terms “family” and “Indian” could be wrong • Similar to Garfinkel “taken for granted” concept Page 1 of 28 • Think about what neglected standpoints are being neglected in the GTA e.g. some homeless people can have homes; “unhoused” – sociologist assumed that the man selling c.d.’s and sleeping on the sidewalk was homeless • “Objectify” – Men look at woman as an object (not okay). Smith is kind of saying that don’t just look at the hot body because there is more to it; She applies this to view the world Simone De Beauvoir “Woman as Other” • What is women • He is the subject, she is other • Men have power over how women are constructed • Global society is not a middle sign • De Beauvoir’s primary thesis is that men fundamentally oppress women by characterizing them, on every level, as the Other, defined exclusively in opposition to men. • Man occupies the role of the self, or subject; woman is the object, the other • He is essential, absolute, and transcendent. She is inessential, incomplete, and mutilated • He extends out into the world to impose his will on it, whereas woman is doomed to immanence, or inwardness • He creates, acts, invents; she waits for him to save her • Why are women taking this social construction by men • Subjection of weaker by the stronger • Video: Ellen “Bic for her” Pens made for women, to fit their hands • Beauvoir shows how men have attained their own self-realization through the othering of women, and in the process, structural formations of human existence have been solidified in ways that perpetuate the classifying of woman as Other. These are deep-seated structures, firmly grounded to the extent of biology. • Beauvoir’s claim of Woman as Other is indeed a serious claim. Her claim carries enough force to shatter our worlds, in which woman has been systematically positioned as that Other through which men attain self-actualization. • It is a unique position  division of the sexes is a biological fact makes it a distinct challenge in social terms • E.g. Video of advertisement of Bic “girly” pens on Ellen • “Reciprocal Relations” (For a relationship to balanced it has to be reciprocal (equal). • One is not born she wrote but “becomes a women” • It is a unique position  division of the sexes is a biological fact makes it a distinct challenge in social terms • Quote is a woman is not born a women but becomes a women it is a learned behaviour Page 2 of 28 Martin King Junior “The Power of Nonviolent Action,” • Gandhi’s campaign on nonviolent resistance • Violence as a way of achieving racial justice is both impractical and immoral • Non-violent resistance makes it possible for the Negro to remain in the South and struggle for his rights. • The Negro problem will not be solved by running away • In the end it is not a struggle between the people at all, but a tension between Justice and Injustice • The Negros, once a helpless child, has now grown up politically, culturally and economically • He must convince the white man that all he seeks is justice for himself and the white man • To gain power through resistance, avoid violence • Violence as a away of achieving racial justice is both impractical and immoral • Through non violent resistance the Negro will be able to rise to the Nobel height of opposing the unjust system while loving the perpetrators of the system • The Negro must work passionately and unrelenting for full stature as a citizen, he must not use inferior methods to gain it never use malice hate or destruction • Video: I have a dream Betty Friedan “ The problem that has no name” • She has a quest • Is Canadian women cooking meals, staying home is that all they can do? • Each suburban wife struggled with it alone. As she made the beds, shopped for groceries, matched slipcover material, ate peanut butter sandwiches with her children, chauffeured Cub Scouts and Brownies, lay beside her husband at night —she was afraid to ask even of herself the silent question—“Is this all?” • “The Problem That Has No Name.” There Friedan verbalized what countless housewives thought and felt but did not know how to say: the American dream was a disappointment for women • Where women were held captive by a culture that expected them to find fulfillment in their families while secluding themselves from the ambitions of the university and the workplace • Video: Step ford Wives, The super Market Scene • The Suburban housewife was the dream image of the young American women • Suburban Wife dream, beautiful, housewife who had everything a women would dream of • There is a New Step ford wife in the GTA • The woman of Stepford are seen as perfect housewives who never have a stray hair out of place and are always submitting to their husbands. The main character Joanna, realizes that this 'perfect' town is not at all what it seems and that the woman of Stepford are created into robots so their husbands can control Page 3 of 28 their every move. Of course, this is a very satirical depiction of female gender roles and oppression, but there is an important message to this story. • Suggests the housewife is viewed as a dominant role in the media and we give into these images. Look at how woman are perpetuated in the media and individuals buy into these products or fads. This image of femininity may have transformed since 1975, but the oppressive nature of these females roles are still very much apparent in todays culture. • Women roles set by cultures Nancy Chodorow “Gender Personality and the Reproduction of Mothering” • People develop a core sense of the general self but it is a problem for men • In order to explain the replication in each generation of women's motive to mother and the relative lack of this motive in men, Chodorow uses psychoanalytic theory, especially as interpreted by the object relation’s school. • Men are doing other stuff, women are caring and loving • Men have to break away from mom love • Girls are les conflicted from mothers, they are closer to their mothers and learn stuff off them • Only way out of this is there should be shared parenting • Women are trying to recreate love • She says how gender hierarchy still exist • Relates to Berger and Luckmann • Family relations produce themselves • Psychoanalytically theory, think about how I’m parenting, how my parents parent leads to how we create gender • Psychoanalytical feminists believe that gender inequality comes from early childhood experiences, which lead men to believe themselves to be masculine, and women to believe themselves feminine. It is further maintained that gender leads to a social system that is dominated by males, which in turn influences the individual psychosexual development. As a solution it was suggested to avoid the gender-specific structuring of the society by male-female coeducation. • Oedipus Complex: She is saying people develop core sense but more problematic for man. Sense of feeling femininity. Women = Mothers, so guys don’t have a role model (male figures) separation after suffering from soft loving, break away from mom love, women are primary care takers. • Heterosexual -> prove manliness and ambivalence= longing/dominate the woman • Girl preoccupied with relationship issues, women wanting to be mothers as well. Women = domesticate world as house works on a daily basis : Emotionally and Psychologically. She is giving you a mechanism of how it works, the gender hierarchy of how shit goes down • From google: In The Reproduction of Mothering, Nancy Chodorow, for instance, argued that differential experiences in infancy orient girls and boys toward Page 4 of 28 different developmental paths, with boys definitively separating from their mothers to identify with the father’s social power and girls developing a more symbiotic/continuous sense of self in relation to the mother. These relational dynamics that emphasize autonomy and separation for boys render men emotionally stunted and less capable of intimate personal relationships, but better prepared for public life and the world of work. Girls, who in contrast develop as subjects in closer relation with their mother, have more fluid psychic boundaries that facilitate a greater capacity for intimacy but leave them less prepared to negotiate the public sphere. Chodorow and other object relations theorists advocated dual parenting as one way to eliminate the characterological imbalances generated by gendered extremes, as children would be able to view both parents as individuals-in-relation, experience men and women as both self- and other-oriented, and view both sexes as inhabiting private and public domains. • Get away from mother to get a manhood Foucault “Power as Knowledge” • Power is everywhere in the everything, we are acting out in power relation • Power for Foucault is sort of like a force • Video: Star wars Clip • What’s the point? Power is between the rock, the tree and power is much like that • What we doing in our everyday relations is what replicates power • Not concentrated or owned by one person • Change or a system? Think of Power as ALLAROUND: FORCE ALLAROUND US • - Everyday situation replicates power/ cant see it , not just individuals. • Its in all of us. Power as WEB. Represses but also enables power • Notion of power and action in terms of race -> Voting law without being citizens. Conflict: Ethnicity/something Blackman could do now. Not something he has that he can give to you. • Tie it with Harstock • Power is a multiplicity of forced relations • What we do in everyday relations is what replicates power • In the oppressor and the oppressed; power is a web and everyone is connected • Power represses people but it also enables them • E.g. race--restricting voting laws in the U.S. • The power is between us around us Page 5 of 28 • The force is around us you cant see it but its everywhere Harstock “A New Theory of Power for Women?” • Doesn’t like post Modernism in general (dangerous approach) • Post Modernism: no clear center or hierarchy, no organizing principle, very complex, lots of contradiction’s and ambiguity • Foucault: Very post Modernism claim power doesn’t exist • How does that help us do real stuff • If power is a net or a web its everywhere everyone’s connected and no one upholds it for Harstock, power becomes invisible • She says power is locatable • If you say it everywhere, saying its nowhere (formulation) problem? • Who’s in trouble? • You don’t have any agency, cant hold power, how do you rebel or revolt? • No one to blame, there no one to battle is the way Harstock would put it • Give agency to the oppressed • Structure effects how and in what way people become agents (relational element) • Video: Wizard of Oz • Power is in you, you just have to know it, be aware of it and how it harness it to change structure • Have to figure out reality from within, not what you see • He made power invisible like force, conceal but Hartstock says we can see it. Hiding power strips multiplicity. (Experience) • IDEA OF AGENCY: Oppressed can’t do anything for No one to battle. Theory of power -> impractical (being able to talk to speak for yourself) • Stress power: Over and power to. Structure effect how it effects our agency and so on • Cycle is important = Reminds us that institutions are made by us. • Foucault’s notion lets some people in power off the hook – the elites • Power should be distributed in everyone • Power is invisible. What is the issue with this? Invisible power takes away agency – no one to blame • Power is hidden and cannot see it, it can be shown through experiences • Ex. I can fire you because I have agency (have the power) Week 8 • Lyotard, “The Postmodern Condition,” • Baudrillard, “Simulacra and Simulations: Disneyland,” • Stein and Plummer, “I Can’t Even Think Straight,” • Giddens, “Post-Modernity or Radicalized Modernity?” Page 6 of 28 • Habermas, “Critical Theory, the Colonized LIfeworld, and Communicative Competence,”. • Alexander, “Cultural Codes and Democratic Communication,” Theme: post modern Habermas – “Critical Theory, the Colonized LIfeworld, and Communicative Competence” • Neo-Marxist taking Marx but reconstructing it and then using it for our own purposes • Everything we need and want we can create for ourselves – Human beings are in change e.g. moving the Mississippi delta • Part of the Frankfurt School (starting to think about Marx and how he would have dealt with mass media, etc.) • How can we use Marx to understand and clarify stuff that was not around when Marx was writing? E.g. overproduction technology, modern photography and mass marketing • Critical theories -Advanced Capitalism: used structures that are out there…watch out for! -critiquing and changing society • Irrational society is what Habermas talks about • How do we control all of this?  bring it under authority, kind of rationality under the sphere of democracy • Believes we all should come together thru the sphere of democracy • We will have a say and control in which our world is going – Do this in a space that is natural • PUBLIC SPHERE (publth voice opinion equality comes in) -Emerged in the 18 century, newspapers, weekly journals, clubs, etc. -Public sphere has shared characteristics (equality for all citizens) -The rise of the public sphere is critical -Wants this space where you can all come and discuss your ideas/issues & that’s a good thing -How do we keep this rationality and reasoning going? What is the role of the state in the public sphere? -Habermas says we should watch out because the media has shifted and it is nor perpetuating rational space  the commercializing of the media has put all of that in jeopardy, -Even though it has emerged, the media has too along with society but there are problems with it • His sphere works • Vistioning an ideal democratic society • Capitalism still exists today we need a public sphere to talk about what is happening Page 7 of 28 Lyotard- “The Postmodern Condition”(look online) • Relation to Habermas- “grand narrative” we have been getting smarter since e.g. the renaissance period brought about enlightenment; we know more, we can do more and do better based on science ( back in the day you do this and you do that) • This “grand narrative” has lost it’s importance – we are in charge of our own destiny • Bell says these big grand narratives do not apply anymore because the world has become too complicated • Derrida  deconstruction and breaking stuff down – was a major break or shift in Western philosophy • Metaphor – imagine we are in class and at some point we think of it as something bigger; when we think of this we are thinking of systems; • The physical center: professor is the center of the class, state government is the center of political life and mother is the center of the family – we have substituting centers • There are inconsistencies in this system • Do not just look at the centers but think beyond them and even critique them • Video: Moe talks about postmodernism Baudrillard -“Simulacra and Simulations: Disneyland” • Great Empire: created a map so detailed and as large as the empire itself. The map grew and decayed as the empire lost its territories. Even though the empire crumbled, the map still remained • Rendition  It is the map that people live in; simulation of reality; reality is crumbling • Simulacra: insubstantial representation or image • 3 order of Simulacra associated with historical periods 1. Pre-modern: images were copies of something original 2. Industrial Revolution: photography, mass production, 19 century the image starts to obscure and threaten to displacd the real 3. Post Modern: image is said to completely take over the real; cant get to the original • What is real and what is simulacra? • Contemporary media, t.v., film, etc. blur the line of what we really need is created by commercial images • Exchange value: value based on money based on money (more abstract) • Multinational Corporations: cannot see the original produced; changed and become some sort of Simulacra; separates goods, products from plants and minerals and others that created them • Urbanization: separated from nature and not tied to origins; we are in a made up world; something we built Page 8 of 28 • Language: ideologies; consuming the real; language is used to obscure rather than reveal reality • Disneyland  concealing the real country; related to Foucault which is concealing our real country because we are all in prison • Concentration camp used as a metaphor for the Disneyland parking lot • What is real? Disneyland is more real than out world; it is hard to say what is real and what isn’t in our environment • Link to Foucault: just as prisoners are there to conceal the fact that it is the social in its entirely • His idea forms a basis for the movie “The Matrix” • Video: Matrix Stein and Plummer- “I Can’t Even Think Straight” (look online) • Sexual order • De-centering the institutions • Starting to think of everything in terms of heterosexuality and homosexuality – that is post-modernism • Queer theory: • The goal of modernity is to rationally organize society but post-moderns say that this is a bunch of bull  gay/lesbians have been saying this for a long time…”welcome to the club!” • Queer theory: o Transgression of rational theory o Question sexual order + institutions • Video: Showed of a guy dressed like women • VIDEO: man dressing up as a woman o Idea of queering the body  Transgressive identity of gays  What’s real, what we think is real • Categories  Centre/what is = not always what we think Giddens, “Post-Modernity or Radicalized Modernity?” • Post-modernity  engaging with Derrida, Baudrillard, Foucault  there is no center, power is everywhere talks about: fradmented, selfist, dissolve Radicalized modernity  post-modernity is breaking down of self • Two main theoretical images: -Weber: More and more rational bonds are tightening -Marx: Modernity is like a monster, it cant be tamed • Giddens says lets think about modernity as a Jaggernaut Page 9 of 28 • Juggernaut (government): runway engine of enormous power; can run it to a certain extent but it will eventually run out of power • Avoiding involvement in anything beyond our own interests • Giddens was not a fan of post-modernity Alexander • Cultural codes + politics • Politics = have certain codes that politics don’t even know they’re doing • If works = hard to understand, then it’s actually hard to comprehend + understand it • Marx, Weber, Durkheim: still influence historical events + contemporary event Week 9 • Wallerstein, “The Modern World System” and “The Modern World System in Crisis,” pp. 448-450 in ST. • Césaire, “Between Colonizer and Colonized,”. • Fanon, “Decolonizing, National Culture, and the Negro Intellectual,” • Sen, “Asian Values and the West’s Claim to Uniqueness,” • Mbembe, “Necropower and Late Modern Colonial Occupation,” • Said, “Intellectual Exile: Expatriates and Marginals,” • Anzaldua, “The New Mestiza Wallerstein- “The Modern World System” and “The Modern World System in Crisis” • Looking at international trade, world economy, how it shapes the states and the relation between the states • Single division of labour in this system and economic tasks are not balanced • CORE – we are in the core currently; it controls trade, has strong states, capital accumulation • PERIPHERY- economically backward, raw materials and cheap labour, countries colonized • SEMI-PERIPEHRY- we’re visiting or falling, trying to improve lives, state buildings semi-developed economies? • It is not class relations that Marx focused on but trade relations • This allows Wallerstein to think about how the state has developed • Easy way to think about the world and how we do trade • Good way to think about colonialism- alive in different forms in the present day What is colonialism? • Creating boundaries, exploitation, extracting natural resources • Going to a different place and taking control Page 10 of 28 • “othering” and “binaries” exist • Extorting religion and unbelievable amounts of killing occur • Artificial constructs of places that were not the same before pre-colonialsm; places are messed up because of colonial legacy • Modern world system • Unit of analysis: stuff you study o Is the whole system/field • Single division of labour o Jobs = not evenly distributed; uneven balance • 3 economy zones: (trade relations, not class production) o 1) core o 2) semi-periphery o 3) periphery • State structures corresponds to 3 zones • 1) Core o Centre o Controls everything o Strong state: machinery, culture, serves interests of dominant capital accumulation o RICH • 2) Semi-periphery o In between core + periphery o Place of motion  Rising + falling state o Function: needed  If just weak + strong, imbalance in world • Periphery = would push for revolution o Semi = can move up, improve, progress o State building on elites • 3) Periphery o Back water/background o Raw materials o Weak, not organized o Corrupt o Dominant class = subordinate to lower class • Everything comes from world’s economy • How did states develop? Page 11 of 28 o Core = G8, just US, etc.  Centre  Extracting resources + labour • Colonialism: exploitation, conquering, sovereignty o Construction of others, killing o System of extraction o Alive in different forms • Artificial constructs: country isn’t that way before colonialism • Tradition of law = fluid + dynamic o British locked it in • Countries = messed up because of colonialism Cesaire – “Between Colonizer and Colonized” • Stuff that colonized was saving colonizer from were worse than what they already faced • “Europe is responsible in the human community for the highest amount of human corpses” • Counter-factual way of writing  is not for this, what else would have happened? In other words, how would Africa and Asia have developed without colonialism? • Even though Europeans brought a modern way of life, people were still oppressed  Nations would have developed but not as rapidly without colonialism • Avatar remix video  there’s and “us” and “them;” idea that the colonized were being saved? • My turn to state an equation: Colonization = Thingification • Thingification: or the reduction of the colonized person into an object was achieved not only by turning her/him into an instrument of production but also by Western accounts (including some radical or socially progressive accounts) of subject-formation • Stuff that colonizers = “saving” colonized from, they brought worse things o Worse structure, struggle • “Europe = responsible for heap of corpses” • *Counterfactual = trying to prove something that actually reinforces what you’re trying to disprove o The what ifs, etc. • Question: how would Asia + Africa develop without colonialism? o West brought industry, economy, education • Answer: would have developed, but not sudden + massive • Trope = story of culture in society • Ideas around colonialism • VIDEO: A.V.A.T.A.R. Page 12 of 28 o Same story in every movie!  Foreign land  Strange people  Africa  Magic  Mixing: sex + love  Through your eyes  Killing  White man crying  Destiny to “save” these people  War + destruction  Fight  I’m the boss, yes boss  3 world  “them” + “us” o Point: reinforcement of notion of savage + native  Reinforcing that this is how society works o Colonialism can take place within country/city/community o Story of self-discovery; be suspicious o World-trade systems Page 13 of 28 Fanon - “Decolonizing, National Culture, and the Negro Intellectual” • Master/slave dialect • Being “black” and “uncivilized”
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