lkecture 4 sept 27 2011.doc

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Lina Samuel

Lecture 4- soc244 sept 27 2011 - power relations are very important in this discussion of sexuality *the scientific method - there are certain characteristics that emerge from the 20th century literature on sexuality - sexuality also appeared to be as an energy system - looking at sexuality as potent energy force connected to spirituality, relationships, etc. - according to Mary - argues there are certain assumptions that emerge from the discourse of the mid 20th century - 1 is: implicitly understanding that men are dominate and that women are more submissive sexually and achieving sexuality - involves some sort of submission of the female - body, sex, the self to men and that part of this is about men - teaching women the nurture sexual responsiveness - and further reject their roles that are somehow seen as psychologically flawed. - other then the scientific method - sexuality is : orgasms, behaviour, relationships, but in the process what has been ignored is the historical dimension - the scientific method tends to view sex as the biological process rather then the history, culture and the moment. Margaret need - challenge the scientific understanding of sexuality - wanted the importance of cultural arrangements - to change and alter sexual prerequisites, across the life stage. sex is not a natural act, it is socially constructed and repeated throughout our lives ***** important. - the importance of social influence of framing sexuality. -When we use the word sex, it is very distinct meanings - her sex is a female - chromosomal effects, her sex role is that of a women - is looking on gender role, historical concept, etc, and She had sex with him - refers the universal meanings around sexuality - images of arousal and so on. defining sexuality : Reiss - based on society that your part of - social life is major influence on sexual responses so one can define sexuality as the arousal, responses resulting from shared sexual scripts. -other special scripts that were not part of: we don't know much about because we are not part of that group. reproduction does not place a significant reason for the importance that we place on sexuality - so even to reproductive outcomes become controllable , such as birth control our interest in sexuality has risen. because of the development of birth control - means a disconnect between sex and reproduction.. sexuality : cannot be reduced to mere reproduction - if you want to have a child - intercourse is the best method - but sex, is female pleasure is a poor choice - since masturbation, and lesbian sex is more satisfying for women. 99% of women can acheive orgams through masterbation. it can reduce pleasure - Two key characteristics: 1) physical pleasure : the pleasures experienced in various parts of the body - societies differ - in what parts of the body are deemed erotic or not- for eg. feet, the length of the hair, the neck, so experience of sexuality may be biological - the group one lives determines what parts of your body turn you on. (biology is filtered through the selectivity of the group.) 2)self disclosure - tends to be a little more abstract - it does not mean affection - it makes someone else aware of a certain part of yourself - part of yourself that is not generally exposed to the public. It can lead to intimacy - but it does not have to lead to a relationship, it relieves stress, emotional support, but it does not have to flow. (may lead to affection in relationships. ) Cultural variations Mangaia in Polynesia - marshal 1971- both sexes in early adolescent experience very high levels of sexual desire. around 13 - 14 following circumsion - boys are given instructions - how to please a girl. after about two weeks, an older sexually experienced women has intercourse with the adolescent boy - girls at this age are also instructed to become orgasmic. if a women's partner fails to satisfy her - she is likely to leave him. the belief that the sexuality is strongest in the earl adolescent phase - so when individual has a certain youth - the sexual impulses decline or diminish. (age is very important in determine sexuality) Dani of new Guinea - show very little interest in sexuality y- very little to no concern about sexual relations because their concern is reproduction. So sexual intercourse is performed very quickly - ending with the male orgasm and that's it. So mothers and fathers do 5 years of sexual abstinence, Victorian Era in Europe and America - believed that women had very little sexual desire - so if they experienced any sexual desire it tended to be around reproduction - wanting to have a baby - it was because reproduction - had to engage in sexuality. They viewed sexuality in a very negative fashion. Women tended to be viewed a Asexual, while men were seen as very sexual. the hundreds ears after plus, really influenced women and their own understanding of sexuality. for eg.. societal to remain a virgin until you are married. in colonial times - the purpose for sex was for reproductive - it was in possession of a man rather then a women - so that the children have a legitimate father - very patriarchal sexual script. Sigmund Freud 1856 - 1939 - you tend to think of sexuality as a dichotomy - humans are sexual - physiological structures responding sexually to either sex. symbolic interactionist perspective - the labels that we place - homosexual, bisexual - they are also socially constructive - Freud showed th
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