SOC318H5 Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Schizophrenia, Sociology, Socioeconomic Status

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12 Oct 2018
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SOC318H5
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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SOC 318: The Sociology of Mental Health and Mental Disorders
Lecture #1
Sociologists are interested in examining how social contexts impact individual mental health
- Durkheim: suicide as a social problem
o Durkheim (1st major sociologist) central claim: sth that seems individual/personal
(eg. suicide/self-hate) can be studied as a social problem OR social fact
o The most personal thing: suicide = is fundamentally shaped by social context
o Rates of suicide vary across time periods = societies = ppl held diff ideas of lives
at certain times
o Suicide = a product of societal dysfunction
The balancing of social and individual aspects of mental health and mental disorders will be the
main focus of this course
This Week’s Reading
- Aeshesel, Carol “. . Itrodutio to Theor-Based Data Aalsis. Pp. -30 in
Theory Based Data Analysis for the Social Sciences. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
- Theory-based data analysis:
o A constant shift between theoretical assertions and empirical realities
o Iterative process: have Q & study & get findings & reformulate Q
o Be explicit abt the fact when you start the research project; already had ideas
- Social science theory:
o A oheret set of geeral priiples oeted to eah other  logial
arguments that proposes an explanation for a phenomenon. In other words, it is
a system of ideas that provides a plausible and rational description of cause-and-
effet tpe relatioships aog a set of ostruts 
o Abstract of principles that will hold MOST cases
o Theory-based data analysis is about TESTING THEORIES
E.g., theories of class conflict + gender + social mobility + stress on mental
health, etc.
- Begin with a hypothesis, a statement of what you EXPECT to find given your theory, then
make observations to see if that theory is correct
- Use findings to REFINE or REFORMULATE THEORY
Constructs and Measured Variables
- Construct: does not exist in reality, but is an abstract representation of a GENERAL
CLASS eg., academic success, disadvantaged neighbourhoods
o Manifestations = Measured Variables
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Relationships and Associations
- Association: When values on variables tend to coincide with one another
- Relationship: one variable causally influences another variable
- Independent variable: The variable that determines aother’s alue
- Dependent variable: The variable that is impacted by another variable
Distinction btw association + relationship
- Association: eg) ice cream sales associated with drowning rates
o Relates to summer + time of year + swimming
- Relationship: implies causality
o Can determine which comes first into doing that
Discussion question #1
- Give an example of two variables that are associated with one another but are NOT
causally connected/forming a relationship.
- Why are they not causally connected despite their association?
Introducing the Elaboration Model
- A method whereby THIRD variables are introduced systematically one at a time into a
two variable association
- Doing so can help us examine the extent to which the original association holds true in
light of RIVAL explanations
- E.g., Step 1: Work Demands Anxiety
Step 2: Work Demands Stress Anxiety
Step 3: New Job Work Demands Stress Anxiety and so on
The Focal Relationship
- It is the relationship you are most interested in and which will carry your entire research
project forward
o Theoretical/logical relationship that you are studying
o E.g., Work demands Anxiety
o Eg) Stigma + Aggression & Homeless + Crime
- First step: Establish that focal relationship is FEASIBLE (does it make sense)establish
that the two variables MAY be related to one another
o Demonstrate that they are empirically associated as predicted by theory and
beyond chance
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Document Summary

A(cid:374)eshe(cid:374)sel, carol . (cid:1006)(cid:1004)(cid:1005)(cid:1007). (cid:862)i(cid:374)trodu(cid:272)tio(cid:374) to theor(cid:455)-based data a(cid:374)al(cid:455)sis. (cid:863) pp. (cid:1007)-30 in. Theory-based data analysis: a constant shift between theoretical assertions and empirical realities. Independent variable: the variable that determines a(cid:374)other"s (cid:448)alue. Implications of the study: ge(cid:374)der + (cid:271)od(cid:455) i(cid:373)age issues = (cid:449)o(cid:373)e(cid:374)"s higher depressio(cid:374) rates. Work demands were posited as stressful because the(cid:455) do(cid:374)"t alig(cid:374) (cid:449)ith the perso(cid:374)"s (cid:374)o(cid:374)- work context. Work de(cid:373)a(cid:374)ds are (cid:374)ot (cid:374)e(cid:272)essaril(cid:455) stressful for e(cid:448)er(cid:455)o(cid:374)e, (cid:271)ut (cid:449)he(cid:374) the(cid:455) do(cid:374)"t alig(cid:374) (cid:449)ith perso(cid:374)"s (cid:272)o(cid:374)te(cid:454)t!!! (cid:894)(cid:272)o(cid:374)trol all thi(cid:374)gs like age + children) It e(cid:454)ists; (cid:271)ut let"s look at where + how it e(cid:454)ists. Perlin: early postwar (wwii) studies showed link between ses + disorder: disorder not random but clustered more in some social strata than in others. Uncertainties in their lives & less clarities: resources important here (buffers, more or less resources to handle those uncertainties, stress (cid:449)ould (cid:271)e (cid:271)uffer (cid:271)ased o(cid:374) o(cid:374)e"s resour(cid:272)es.

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