You will have:
1. 3 questions based on T. Millon + (lecture slides);
2. 6 questions based on Scull (+lecture slides)
3. 5 questions based on “Madness in the streets 9+lecture slides)
4. 1 question from previous lectures and readings;
5. 1 question based on “The Lobotomist”
6. 2 questions based on the lecture 11 (Ontario Mental HealthAct).
There are 18 questions in your test.
The duration of test 3 is 1 hour 38 minutes.
Test will contain short-answer questions.
The value of the test is 25% of your final grade.
Millon – Personality Disorders in Modern Life
Antisocial Personality Disorder
1. What are the DSM-IV criteria for the antisocial personality? Please read those
criteria and analyze how they were applied to the case study (p. 152, 170). Try to
infer why this diagnosis quite often may aggravate the guilt of the offender with
a. Criteria: pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of
others, individual is at least 18, evidence of Conduct Disorder, occurrence
of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of schizo or
2. What is psychopathy and how does it differ from the antisocial personality? What
is the difference between psychopathy and sociopathy?
a. Psychopath can cloak themselves in the trappings of normality
i. Damage or destroy lives without remorse, shame, or conscience
ii. Pathological liars adept at sizing up situations and feigning
iii. Deep-seated inability to understand the emotion dimension of
b. How is psychopathy different from antisocial personality
i. Psychopathy is a step further on the continuum
c. Diff b/w psychopath and sociopath
i. Sociopaths are made that way through neglect, abuse and other
factors in childhood
ii. Psychopaths are born that way 3. Do antisocial women show a pattern of behavioral pathology different from the
pattern of antisocial men?
a. Female deviance was often viewed as largely sexual misbehavior rather
than criminal, and the woman was to be treated and cured rather than
b. Males exhibit more verbal and physical aggression from threatening to
hitting while females are more likely to exhibit what has been termed as
‘relational aggression’such as spreading malicious rumors and gossip and
rejecting other females from their social groups.
4. Please remember subtypes ofAPD.
a. Covetous antisocial
i. Resembles a ‘pure’prototypal pattern
ii. Aggrandizement, the desire to possess and dominate, is seen in a
iii. Their goal is compensation for the emptiness of life, rationalized
by the assertion that they alone can restore the imbalance fated to
iv. Remain insecure of power and status, regardless of success
v. Jealous, envious, pushy and greedy
b. Nomadic antisocial
i. Schizoid, avoidant features
ii. Feels jinxed, ill-fated, doomed and cast-aside
iii. Drifters, gypsy-like roamers
c. Risk-taking antisocial
i. Histrionic features
ii. Dauntless, venturesome, intrepid, bold, reckless, impulsive,
heedless, pursues perilous ventures
d. Reputation-defending antisocial
i. Narcissistic features
ii. Needs to be thought of as unflawed, unbreakable, invincible,
iii. Overreactive when status is questioned
e. Malevolent antisocial
i. Sadistic, paranoid features ii. Vicious, malignant, brutal, resentful, anticipates betrayal and
punishment, desires revenge, callous, guiltless
5. How do the different perspectives explain and describeAPD? (p. 161 – 177)
i. Inborn termperaments that make them seem tough, aggressive,
fearless, impulsive, hotheaded and attention seeking
ii. Do not develop a conscience, which leaves them without empathy
i. The individual is forever gripped by inexorable conflicts b/w the
instincts of the id and the forces of socialization
ii. The ego develops, but the superego does not. instead, the total
personality remains dominated by the infantile id and its pleasure
iii. Lack of superego = lack of conscience
i. Focuses on relationships b/w persons and the impact of their
communications, both developmentally and in the here and now
ii. Antisocial personality represents almost pure interpersonal
1. Oppositional, irritable, and rude
iii. Children exposes to neglect, indifference, hostility, and physical
abuse are likely to learn that the world is a cold, unforgiving place.
Such infants lack normal models of empathic tenderness. Never
learn to control aggression adequately.
i. Concerned with beliefs, expectations, attributions, appraisals, and
the unique and highly subjective ways in which individuals
construe their worlds
ii. Deviant, egocentric, and impulsive
iii. No ‘higher order goals’or ‘moral constraints’
1. No ability to plan ahead or think of the consequences of
i. Personality is the patterning of variables across the entire matric of
the person. For some antisocials, biological determinants dominate.
ii. Biological determinants = primary psychopath iii. Active self-oriented = antisocial personality disorder
iv. Social determinants = sociopath
v. Passive self-oriented = narcissistic personality disorder
6. What is the historical significance of the terms moral insanity and psychopathic
a. Moral insanity: Prichard held that despite understanding the choices
before them, their conduct was swayed by overwhelming compulsions.
Though unscientific, the idea of moral insanity still has certain appeal, if
only because the normal person often has no way of identifying with the
more pathological actions of antisocials and psychopaths.
b. Koch proposed that the term moral insanity be replaced by psychopathic
inferiority, explicitly casting the syndrome as an ‘inferiority of brain
constitution’. The term was later dropped, due to poor wording. The term
psychopathic was then adopted.
7. Summarize the biological evidence for the antisocial personality.
8. Why is the interpersonal behavior of the antisocial characterized as “pure
interpersonal hostility” and “irresponsible”?
a. No regard for human relationships or emotion. The antisocial is
oppositional, irritable, and rude. Does not care to create interpersonal
9. How does the antisocial cognitive style, which appears to be highly vulnerable to
the influence of immediate rewards and gratifications, contribute to the overall
expression of this personality disorder? Do you think that imprisonment may
deter antisocial offender form the future crimes? Why do you think that it is
a. The prison system works to
10. Why is substance abuse so prevalent among “antisocials”?
a. Antisocials have no moral qualms that might moderate substance use and
usually have little regard for any constructive direction in life that might
be damaged as result.
b. The immediate gratification offered resonates well with the tendency of
antisocials to seek sensation in its raw, uncut form.
c. They provide a sense of defiance of the ruling culture and a sense of
brotherhood in the subculture of the deviant peer group, the only positive
feeling that may exist in the lives of some antisocials.
d. Substance use diminishes or distracts from the residual negative affects,
such as anxiety, depression, and guilty.
11. Why are antisocials often called “adrenaline seekers”? a. Inability to cope with boredom, always seeking excitement. They cannot
feel emotions, but are still capable of getting an adrenaline rush. They do
not look at the consequences of their actions and are risk takers.
12. Try to explain why antisocial offenders quite often are arrested for the statutory
rape?Are they ‘real pedophiles’? Please elaborate your point of view.
a. Sexual gratification is craved by the id.And since antisocials need instant
gratification, they pay no heed to social convention or the consent of the
13. Please explain why rehabilitation of antisocials is often inefficient?
a. Because antisocials are lacking in conscience, society must either function
as the conscience they lack or suffer the consequences.
b. Therapy appears as a constraint to the antisocial, and therefore they refuse
14. What is a “superficial social charm” of antisocials?
Sadistic personality disorder (SPD) (p. 530 – 539)
1. Please explain a difference between sadistic behavior and a sadistic personality.
a. Only when the knowledge that others are suffering gives the individual
pleasure does behavior become sadistic.
b. And only when the inflicting of psychological or physical pain becomes
the organizing principle in life does the individual become a sadistic
2. What are the DSM-III-R criteria for the sadistic personality? Please read those
criteria and analyze how they were applied to the case study (p.
a. Pervasive pattern of cruel, demeaning, and aggressive behavior, beginning
by early adulthood
i. Used physical cruelty or violence for the purpose of establishing
dominance in a relationship
ii. Humiliates or demeans people in the presence of others
iii. Is amused by or takes pleasure in the psych or physical suffering of
b. The behavior inA has not been directed toward only one person and has
not been solely for the purpose of sexual arousal
3. Please pay special attention to: TABLE 15.2 The Sadistic Personality: Functional
and Structural Domains (p. 537). What the difference can you find between The
Sadistic Personality and TheAntisocial Personality (TABLE 5.1 TheAntisocial
Personality: Functional and Structural Domains [p. 178])?
a. Antisocial i. Expressive behavior: Impulsive
1. Impetuous and irrepressible, incautious and imprudent,
failing to plan ahead
ii. Interpersonal conduct: Irresponsible
1. Untrustworthy and unreliable, actively violates the rights of
1. Construes events and relationships in accord with socially
unorthodox beliefs and morals
iv. Regulatory mechanism: Acting-out
1. Social repugnant impulses are not refashioned in
sublimated forms, but are discharged directly in precipitous
ways, usually w/o guilt or remorse
v. Self-image: autonomous
1. Sees self as unfettered by the restrictions of social customs
and constrains of personal loyalties
vi. Object-representations: debased
1. Internalized reps comprise degraded and corrupt
relationships that spur vengeful attitudes and restive
impulses that are driven to subvert established cultural
ideals and mores
vii. Morphologic organization: unruly
1. Inner morpho structures to contain drive and impulse and
noted by their paucity, as are efforts to curb refractory
energies and attitudes, leading to easily transgressed
controls, low thresholds for hostile or erotic discharge, few
subliminatory channels, etc
viii. Mood/temperament: callous
1. Insensitive, irritable, and aggressive
b. Sadistic (554)