Test 3 Notes

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Nikolay Shchitov

You will have: 1. 3 questions based on T. Millon + (lecture slides); 2. 6 questions based on Scull (+lecture slides) 3. 5 questions based on “Madness in the streets 9+lecture slides) 4. 1 question from previous lectures and readings; 5. 1 question based on “The Lobotomist” 6. 2 questions based on the lecture 11 (Ontario Mental HealthAct). There are 18 questions in your test. The duration of test 3 is 1 hour 38 minutes. Test will contain short-answer questions. The value of the test is 25% of your final grade. Millon – Personality Disorders in Modern Life Antisocial Personality Disorder 1. What are the DSM-IV criteria for the antisocial personality? Please read those criteria and analyze how they were applied to the case study (p. 152, 170). Try to infer why this diagnosis quite often may aggravate the guilt of the offender with APD. a. Criteria: pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others, individual is at least 18, evidence of Conduct Disorder, occurrence of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of schizo or manic episode b. 2. What is psychopathy and how does it differ from the antisocial personality? What is the difference between psychopathy and sociopathy? a. Psychopath can cloak themselves in the trappings of normality i. Damage or destroy lives without remorse, shame, or conscience ii. Pathological liars adept at sizing up situations and feigning sincerity iii. Deep-seated inability to understand the emotion dimension of language b. How is psychopathy different from antisocial personality i. Psychopathy is a step further on the continuum ii. c. Diff b/w psychopath and sociopath i. Sociopaths are made that way through neglect, abuse and other factors in childhood ii. Psychopaths are born that way 3. Do antisocial women show a pattern of behavioral pathology different from the pattern of antisocial men? a. Female deviance was often viewed as largely sexual misbehavior rather than criminal, and the woman was to be treated and cured rather than punished. b. Males exhibit more verbal and physical aggression from threatening to hitting while females are more likely to exhibit what has been termed as ‘relational aggression’such as spreading malicious rumors and gossip and rejecting other females from their social groups. c. 4. Please remember subtypes ofAPD. a. Covetous antisocial i. Resembles a ‘pure’prototypal pattern ii. Aggrandizement, the desire to possess and dominate, is seen in a distilled form iii. Their goal is compensation for the emptiness of life, rationalized by the assertion that they alone can restore the imbalance fated to them iv. Remain insecure of power and status, regardless of success v. Jealous, envious, pushy and greedy b. Nomadic antisocial i. Schizoid, avoidant features ii. Feels jinxed, ill-fated, doomed and cast-aside iii. Drifters, gypsy-like roamers c. Risk-taking antisocial i. Histrionic features ii. Dauntless, venturesome, intrepid, bold, reckless, impulsive, heedless, pursues perilous ventures d. Reputation-defending antisocial i. Narcissistic features ii. Needs to be thought of as unflawed, unbreakable, invincible, indomitable, etc iii. Overreactive when status is questioned e. Malevolent antisocial i. Sadistic, paranoid features ii. Vicious, malignant, brutal, resentful, anticipates betrayal and punishment, desires revenge, callous, guiltless 5. How do the different perspectives explain and describeAPD? (p. 161 – 177) a. Biological i. Inborn termperaments that make them seem tough, aggressive, fearless, impulsive, hotheaded and attention seeking ii. Do not develop a conscience, which leaves them without empathy or remorse b. Psychodynamic i. The individual is forever gripped by inexorable conflicts b/w the instincts of the id and the forces of socialization ii. The ego develops, but the superego does not. instead, the total personality remains dominated by the infantile id and its pleasure principle. iii. Lack of superego = lack of conscience c. Interpersonal i. Focuses on relationships b/w persons and the impact of their communications, both developmentally and in the here and now ii. Antisocial personality represents almost pure interpersonal hostility 1. Oppositional, irritable, and rude iii. Children exposes to neglect, indifference, hostility, and physical abuse are likely to learn that the world is a cold, unforgiving place. Such infants lack normal models of empathic tenderness. Never learn to control aggression adequately. d. Cognitive i. Concerned with beliefs, expectations, attributions, appraisals, and the unique and highly subjective ways in which individuals construe their worlds ii. Deviant, egocentric, and impulsive iii. No ‘higher order goals’or ‘moral constraints’ 1. No ability to plan ahead or think of the consequences of their actions e. Evolutionary-neurodevelopmental i. Personality is the patterning of variables across the entire matric of the person. For some antisocials, biological determinants dominate. ii. Biological determinants = primary psychopath iii. Active self-oriented = antisocial personality disorder iv. Social determinants = sociopath v. Passive self-oriented = narcissistic personality disorder 6. What is the historical significance of the terms moral insanity and psychopathic inferiority? a. Moral insanity: Prichard held that despite understanding the choices before them, their conduct was swayed by overwhelming compulsions. Though unscientific, the idea of moral insanity still has certain appeal, if only because the normal person often has no way of identifying with the more pathological actions of antisocials and psychopaths. b. Koch proposed that the term moral insanity be replaced by psychopathic inferiority, explicitly casting the syndrome as an ‘inferiority of brain constitution’. The term was later dropped, due to poor wording. The term psychopathic was then adopted. 7. Summarize the biological evidence for the antisocial personality. a. 8. Why is the interpersonal behavior of the antisocial characterized as “pure interpersonal hostility” and “irresponsible”? a. No regard for human relationships or emotion. The antisocial is oppositional, irritable, and rude. Does not care to create interpersonal relationships. 9. How does the antisocial cognitive style, which appears to be highly vulnerable to the influence of immediate rewards and gratifications, contribute to the overall expression of this personality disorder? Do you think that imprisonment may deter antisocial offender form the future crimes? Why do you think that it is effective/useless sanction? a. The prison system works to 10. Why is substance abuse so prevalent among “antisocials”? a. Antisocials have no moral qualms that might moderate substance use and usually have little regard for any constructive direction in life that might be damaged as result. b. The immediate gratification offered resonates well with the tendency of antisocials to seek sensation in its raw, uncut form. c. They provide a sense of defiance of the ruling culture and a sense of brotherhood in the subculture of the deviant peer group, the only positive feeling that may exist in the lives of some antisocials. d. Substance use diminishes or distracts from the residual negative affects, such as anxiety, depression, and guilty. 11. Why are antisocials often called “adrenaline seekers”? a. Inability to cope with boredom, always seeking excitement. They cannot feel emotions, but are still capable of getting an adrenaline rush. They do not look at the consequences of their actions and are risk takers. 12. Try to explain why antisocial offenders quite often are arrested for the statutory rape?Are they ‘real pedophiles’? Please elaborate your point of view. a. Sexual gratification is craved by the id.And since antisocials need instant gratification, they pay no heed to social convention or the consent of the other person. 13. Please explain why rehabilitation of antisocials is often inefficient? a. Because antisocials are lacking in conscience, society must either function as the conscience they lack or suffer the consequences. b. Therapy appears as a constraint to the antisocial, and therefore they refuse to cooperate. 14. What is a “superficial social charm” of antisocials? Sadistic personality disorder (SPD) (p. 530 – 539) 1. Please explain a difference between sadistic behavior and a sadistic personality. a. Only when the knowledge that others are suffering gives the individual pleasure does behavior become sadistic. b. And only when the inflicting of psychological or physical pain becomes the organizing principle in life does the individual become a sadistic personality. 2. What are the DSM-III-R criteria for the sadistic personality? Please read those criteria and analyze how they were applied to the case study (p. a. Pervasive pattern of cruel, demeaning, and aggressive behavior, beginning by early adulthood i. Used physical cruelty or violence for the purpose of establishing dominance in a relationship ii. Humiliates or demeans people in the presence of others iii. Is amused by or takes pleasure in the psych or physical suffering of others, etc b. The behavior inA has not been directed toward only one person and has not been solely for the purpose of sexual arousal 3. Please pay special attention to: TABLE 15.2 The Sadistic Personality: Functional and Structural Domains (p. 537). What the difference can you find between The Sadistic Personality and TheAntisocial Personality (TABLE 5.1 TheAntisocial Personality: Functional and Structural Domains [p. 178])? a. Antisocial i. Expressive behavior: Impulsive 1. Impetuous and irrepressible, incautious and imprudent, failing to plan ahead ii. Interpersonal conduct: Irresponsible 1. Untrustworthy and unreliable, actively violates the rights of others iii. Deviant 1. Construes events and relationships in accord with socially unorthodox beliefs and morals iv. Regulatory mechanism: Acting-out 1. Social repugnant impulses are not refashioned in sublimated forms, but are discharged directly in precipitous ways, usually w/o guilt or remorse v. Self-image: autonomous 1. Sees self as unfettered by the restrictions of social customs and constrains of personal loyalties vi. Object-representations: debased 1. Internalized reps comprise degraded and corrupt relationships that spur vengeful attitudes and restive impulses that are driven to subvert established cultural ideals and mores vii. Morphologic organization: unruly 1. Inner morpho structures to contain drive and impulse and noted by their paucity, as are efforts to curb refractory energies and attitudes, leading to easily transgressed controls, low thresholds for hostile or erotic discharge, few subliminatory channels, etc viii. Mood/temperament: callous 1. Insensitive, irritable, and aggressive b. Sadistic (554)
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