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# STA215H5 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Standard Deviation, Variance, Normal Distribution

Department
Statistics
Course Code
STA215H5
Professor
J.Leydon
Study Guide
Final

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STA215H5

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STA215 Lecture 1; Chapter 1
What is statistics?
Collecting, analyzing, interpreting and presenting (visualization) of data
Finding patterns and relationships within to draw conclusions
Bigger picture: Take a sample and infer something about a larger population
Examples;
Facebook is a social networking website where users can share pictures,
comments, links to news/websites, update friends/family on their
whereabouts, play games and chat live
Have you noticed Facebook also has ads that look very familiar or may be
related to things you viewed on other websites before?
This is because Facebook is collecting data based on your profile
through tools like Facebook Analytics and measurement tools
To Facebook, your data is a gold mine!! Your data can be sold to marketing
companies
Example: Facebook can sell your data to companies with their primary
consumers being university students and so your profile may be included
Data;
Subjects or Participants are individuals on whom we experiment on
Whereas Experimental units is typically reserved for animals, websites, and other
inanimate objects we conduct experiments on
A population is the group of all items of interest. It is most often extremely large and
may, in fact, be infinitely large
A sample is a set of data (subset) drawn from the studied population.
A descriptive measure of a population is called a parameter or parameter of
interest.
A descriptive measure of a sample is called a statistic.
Statistical inference is the process of making an estimate, prediction, or decision
about a population based on sample data
Example;
Suppose we want to find out the average distance UTM students live from campus.
Asking each and every UTM student would take forever. Instead, you decide to stand
at the bus stop and randomly ask 100 UTM students how far away they live. What is
the population, sample, parameter and statistic?
Population; UTM students
Sample; 100 UTM students
Parameter; average distance that entire utm students population live away
Statistic; average distance that the sample of 100 UTM students live away
Variables;
A variable is some characteristic recorded about a population or sample. We usually
represent the name of a variable using uppercase letters (typically use X , Y, and Z)
The values that the variable takes on are the possible observations of the variable
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Lowercase letters
The data is the observed values of a variable
Actual numbers of entire variable we are interested in
Focused on 3 types of variables;
Categorical also known as qualitative or nominal variables, tell us which
group an observation belongs to. (Ex. male and female, left vs. right handed) -
nominal
Quantitative variables contain numerical values with units of measurement.
(Ex. heights, weights, kilometres driven) - interval ratio
Ordinal variables are variables that contain order without natural units. (Ex.
star ratings for a restaurant, rating your customer service experience) - ordinal
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