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Final

BIOA01H3 Final: Biology All Units Study Notes

36 Pages
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOA01H3
Professor
Karolyn Keir

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Bio - All Units Study Notes
Review
Atom: the smallest whole unit of matter – compose of subatomic particles – protons
and neutrons located in the nucleus, electrons located in energy shells surrounding the
nucleus
Element: pure substance composed of all of the same type of atom – eg. O2
Compound: made up of 2 or more atoms of different elements bonded together in a
fixed ratio – pure substances because they have the same type of particles – eg. H2O
! form when atoms transfer electrons or share electron pairs
Molecule: formed when atoms join together – could be either an element or a
compound
Symbiosis: a situation in which two organisms live in close contact and at least one
benefits
!Mutualism: a situation in which two organisms live in close contact and both
benefit
!Parasitism: a situation in which one organism lives in or on another organism
and feeds on that organism (eg. Lice)
!Commensalism: a situation in which two organisms live in close contact; one
benefits and the other is not affected (eg. Ivy growing on tree trunk)
Invasive species: species introduced by humans into new environments with
unforeseen consequences
Monoculture: crops grown in large fields containing a single kind of plant
Climate change: large quantities of greenhouse gases produced and emitted that trap
thermal energy in the atmosphere
Extirpation: habitat loss and pollution which can lead to the loss of a species from a
particular region – isolated habitat loss
Sustainability: how ecosystems support organisms, remain diverse and productive
now, without compromising future generations’ use ! helps an ecosystem to be more
resistant to change – more feeding relationships, more niches filled, more nutrient
cycling
Cytoplasm: jelly like fluid inside cells – surrounds organelles and contains a “soup” of
important chemicals needed for cell processes
Vacuole: membrane sacks – store food and water (and in plants, maintain cell shape)
Lysosome: vacuole with digestive enzymes – breaks down food and involved in
apoptosis (controlled cell death)
1
Cell membrane: membrane filled with proteins and enzymes – control what goes in and
what comes out of the cells, separates cell from external environment
Endoplasmic Reticulum: system of tubes made from membranes – transports proteins
and other material throughout the cell
Ribosome: very small structures made of DNA and protein usually found on ER – make
proteins by “reading” genetic code
Golgi body: membrane tubes in a bundle with buds of membrane coming off – sorts,
modifies, packages, and ships proteins
Mitochondria: oval-shaped organelle with a double membrane – the “powerhouse” of
the cell; produces energy from food (sugars) – performs cellular respiration
Nuclear Membrane: membrane around the nucleus that is very porous – allows the
genetic code to be communicated with the ribosomes and allows other materials in and
out of the nucleus
Nucleus: circular structure with a membrane – holds and protects the chromatin
Nucleolus: circular structure inside nucleus – makes ribosomes
Chromatin: DNA bundled in the nucleus with proteins – codes for proteins (genetic
code) – chromosomes allow for DNA to be packaged
Centriole (in animals only): two perpendicular bundles of tubes – involved in cell
division
Chloroplast (in plants only): oval-shaped organelle filled with stacks of protein – main
site of photosynthesis (makes sugar to fuel mitochondrion) – chlorophyll in chloroplast
allows cell to trap sun’s energy for photosynthesis
Cell Wall (in plants only): thick, geometric, tough/hard outer covering of the cell –
maintains structure of plant cell – separates cell from external environment
Flagellum/cilia: whip-like tail – used for locomotion
Cell cycle: entire period of a cell’s life, including: interphase, G1, G2, and mitosis
Unicellular: organisms with one cell
Multicellular: organisms with more than one cell
Micro-organism: any organism of microscopic/small size (10^-6) – can be seen using a
microscope – include bacteria (eg. E coli), fungi (eg. Yeasts), etc. – viewing organisms
in magnified form allows us to see the structure, and then understand functions
Hypothesis: a predicted, educated answer with a theoretical explanation to a testable
question which the experiment attempts to answer – states the relationship between the
dependent and independent variable(s)
Independent variable: the variable which is manipulated – should only be ONE
Dependent variable: the measured variable – responds to changes in the independent
variable
Controlled experiment: experiment that involves only ONE independent variable and
multiple controlled variables, and also involves a control group to serve as a basis for
comparison
2
Chapter 1
Biological diversity: the number and variety of species and ecosystems on earth
!Species diversity: variety of different species – the quantity of each species
contributes to overall diversity
!Structural diversity: variation in the types of ecosystems and habitats (size,
shape, distribution)
!Genetic diversity: the genetic variability among organisms (usually referring to
individuals of the same species)
Importance of Biodiversity:
!more biodiversity = more resistant to change
!More feeding relationships – ensures consistent food supply
!More niches filled means more nutrient cycling
!Maintenance of ecosystem services (eg. Water filtration, oxygen production,
pollination)
!Natural beauty/fascination
!Potential for new discoveries (eg. Medicines)
!Economic benefits (ecotourism/exploitation)
Threats to biodiversity:
!Habitat loss – changes in land use
!Climate change
!Over-exploitation
!Invasive species
!Pollution
Biological species concept: species: all organisms capable of breeding freely with
each other under natural conditions and producing fertile offspring
!Disadvantages: some plants undergo hybridization: the cross-breeding of 2
different species, some organisms only reproduce asexually, if species are
geographically separate they cannot mate, extinct species cannot mate
Morphological species concept: species: based on morphology-physical appearance
and characteristics
!Disadvantages: significant variation can exist within a species
Phylogenetic species concept: based on an organism’s evolutionary relatedness
between and among species
3

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Description
Bio All Units Study Notes Review Atom: the smallest whole unit of matter compose of subatomic particles protons and neutrons located in the nucleus, electrons located in energy shells surrounding the nucleus Element: pure substance composed of all of the same type of atom eg. O2 Compound: made up of 2 or more atoms of different elements bonded together in a fixed ratio pure substances because they have the same type of particles eg. H2O form when atoms transfer electrons or share electron pairs Molecule: formed when atoms join together could be either an element or a compound Symbiosis: a situation in which two organisms live in close contact and at least one benefits Mutualism: a situation in which two organisms live in close contact and both benefit Parasitism: a situation in which one organism lives in or on another organism and feeds on that organism (eg. Lice) Commensalism: a situation in which two organisms live in close contact; one benefits and the other is not affected (eg. Ivy growing on tree trunk) Invasive species: species introduced by humans into new environments with unforeseen consequences Monoculture: crops grown in large fields containing a single kind of plant Climate change: large quantities of greenhouse gases produced and emitted that trap thermal energy in the atmosphere Extirpation: habitat loss and pollution which can lead to the loss of a species from a particular region isolated habitat loss Sustainability: how ecosystems support organisms, remain diverse and productive now, without compromising future generations use helps an ecosystem to be more resistant to change more feeding relationships, more niches filled, more nutrient cycling Cytoplasm: jelly like fluid inside cells surrounds organelles and contains a soup of important chemicals needed for cell processes Vacuole: membrane sacks store food and water (and in plants, maintain cell shape) Lysosome: vacuole with digestive enzymes breaks down food and involved in apoptosis (controlled cell death) 1
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