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BIOC19H3- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 76 pages long!)


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOC19H3
Professor
Ian Brown
Study Guide
Final

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UTSC
BIOC19H3
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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BIOC19
Lec 1
Thurs Sept 7, 2017
Principles of Development
What is developmental biology?
The study of the developing animal from the fertilized egg right through to the adult
stage
Study of the development of specific tissues (e.g. formation of blood cells)
Can be studied at 2 levels
1. Morphological level
2. Molecular level
Course central theme:
Regulation of gene expression underlies morphological changes seen in development
E.g. gene HMGA2 key gene regulating height in people mechanism unknown but thought to
increase cell production
But many genes often work together to achieve a morphological trait including height
Historical Advances in Developmental Biology
Phase 1: Descriptive Studies
Phase 2: Comparative Studies
Phase 3: Experimental Embryological Developmental Studies
Phase 4: Molecular Biology Studies
Phase 5: Transgenic Plants and Animals
Phase 1: Descriptive Studies
1. Visual observations
2. Microscopic observations
Ancient times (Naked eye) ~16th century (single lens magnifiers) 18th century-present
(Compound microscopes)
- Early descriptive observations using naked eye
- Advances in glassmaking permitted magnifying lenses to be developed later
incorporated into:
- Early microscopes to make descriptive observations with inc. magnification
Visual observations with naked eye
Chick development
- No equipment used
- Inside the egg outside the female, the chick develops
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- Open chick eggs at diff times and observe the development of the chick embryo
detailed anatomical drawings
- Early medical schools
- Detailed drawings of organs in human body noting how internal organs change with
development and age
Microscopic observations
Invention of compound light microscope depended on:
1. Advances in glass making techniques (for lens development and improvement)
2. Proper specimen preparation
- Look at development in higher magnification
Tissue preparation for microscopy:
1. Fixation
2. Embedding
3. Sectioning
4. Staining
Fixation
Preserves tissue
Prevents autolysis
Makes tissue hardy
Method can be either physical (heat/cold) or chemical
- Prevents from degrading, preserves
- Killing cells but Fixing tissues and keeping cell in natural state as possible
- Makes tissue harder in texture and easier to cut in sections- early chemical used to fix
tissue = formaldehyde
- Poor fixation lots of holes in tissue vs. in good fixation
A note of caution: fixation can cause artifacts
Artifact: a structure not naturally present in the sample being observed that arises during tissue
preparation
Example 1: Lacunae spaces in hyaline cartilage
- big holes = artifact arise as a result of bad fixation
Example 2: Bacterial mesosomes seen with transmission electron microscopy
Embedding
Provides additional structural rigidity to tissue
What are examples of embedding media?
- Embed in media to cut thin structures
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