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Study Guide

[PSYB45H3] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (41 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Jessica Dere
Study Guide
Final

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UTSC
PSYB45H3
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Antecedent control: modelling, physical guidance, and situational inducement
Modeling
Modelling is a procedure by which a sample of a given behavior is demonstrated to an
individual to induce that individual to engage in a similar behavior.
General factors influence the effectiveness of modelling.
Arrange for peers to be models: people are more likely to imitate those who are
similar to them in various ways.
Video modelling, which involves showing video-recorded displays of a typically
developing child or children emitting target responses, is an effective way for
teaching a child with autism to emit those target responses.
Arrange for the modeled behavior to be seen to be effective: arrange for the
learner to observe the model emit the desired behavior and receive
reinforcement. Eg:high-status and prestigious persons are more likely to be
imitated than others, because they are more observed.
Use multiple models
Combine modelling with rules: modelling is likely to be most effective when
combined with rules and other behavioral strategies.
Behavioral rehearsal or role-playing is a technique in which a client rehearses
particular behaviors (plays a role) in a practice setting to increase the likelihood
that the client will follow those behaviors appropriately in the real world.
Guidelines for using modeling
Select models who are friends or peers of the learner and who are seen by the
learner as competent individuals with status or prestige.
Use more than one model.
The complexity of the modeled behavior should be suitable for the behavior a
level of the learner.
Combine rules with modeling.
Have the learner watch the model perform the behavior and receive
reinforcement (preferred by natural reinforcers)
Design the training so that the correct imitation of the modelled behavior will
lead to a natural reinforce for the learner. Of this is not possible, arrange for
reinforcement for correct imitation of the modeled behavior.
If the behavior is complex, then the modelling episode should be sequenced
form very easy to more difficult approximations for the learner.
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To enhance stimulus generalization, the modeling scenes should be as realistic
as possible.
Use fading as necessary do that stimuli other than the model can take control
over the desired behavior.
Processes by which imitative behavior can be learned:
An individual is frequently reinforced after emitting behavior that is similar to
behavior that another individual has emitted.
To the extent that other people are reinforcing to us, their actions acquires
conditioned reinforcing properties.
Once we have learned to imitate simple responses, we can then imitate more
complex behavior, provided that these are composed of the simpler responses.
As infants, people imitate us, creating an association betweem our behavior and
similar behavior in them.
Physical guidance
Physical guidance is the application of physical contact to induce an individual to go
through the motions of a desired behavior.
Application of physical guidance
Physical guidance is often used as an aid for teaching individual to follow
instructions or imitate a modeled behavior so that instruction or modeling can
then be used without physical guidance to establish other behaviors.
Generalized imitation: an individual, after learning to imitate a number of
behavior, learns to imitate a new response on the first trial without
reinforcement.
In helping individuals to overcome fears.
Guidelines for using physical guidance
Situational inducement
Situational inducement refers to the influence of a behavior by using situations and
occasions that already exert control over the behavior.
Four overlapping categories:
Rearranging the surroundings eg: altering the item in one’s room to enhance
productivity.
Moving the activity to a new location
Relocating the people
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