Data, denials and confusion: the racial profiling debate in toronto. Racial profiling: when members of certain racial or ethnic groups become subject to greater levels of criminal justice surveillance than others. Stop and search practices, racial differences in customs searches, increased police patrols in racial minority neighbourhoods, etc. Racial profiling involves racial bias in police investigation , not racial bias in arrest decisions or racial bias in police treatment after arrest. Over-representation of blacks could mean subject to greater police surveillance. However, could also mean that blacks are simply more involved in certain criminal activities. Data suggests blacks are 8 times more likely to be stopped and searched by police than whites. zl required to record race of people stopped or searched. However, number of field studies have uncovered evidence that racial profiling may exist: eg. James (1998) conducted intensive interview with over 50 black youth from southern. Being stopped by the police was common to them.