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JAV131H1 Final: Ibelings’ Key to Successful Historical Awareness

Architecture Studies
Course Code
Hans Ibelings
Study Guide

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Ielings’ Key to Suessful Historial Awareness
[situate them in time]
1. Movements
2. Names of architects and their most important projects
3. Events, important publications
4. Use the readings as background, although No specific questions
5. Architects, architecture and events situated in time
6. Lecture: Summaries and names of architects
7. Every architect included with a portrait is important
architects and buildings
Historical significance (see below)
/ Economic/population boom, infrastructure
/ Modern civilization and architectural culture
City planners were geographers, lawyers,
1890 Eiffel + skyscraper (railways)
1850 Crystal Palace (circumstancial)
1789 French Revolution (modern civil society)
1776 American Revolution
1750 Industrial Revolution (urbanization,
colonialism, rise of architecture)
1700 Scientific Revolution
1600 Agricultural Revolution (Mechanization,
labour surplus, migration)
New York Commissioners’ Plan 1807, 1811
*How to plan a city 50k → 4m
New York
Great fire of Chicago 1871 - rebuilding
“Form Follows Function” 1896
“Une Maison est une machine-a-habiter” 1925
Crystal Palace: glass and steel, new techm
prefabrication, modular construction, absence of
style, function 1855
Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer, Fagus Factory
International Exposition in Paris 1867 (Elevator)
New Construction materials: Concrete and Steel
+Steel: 19th 20th century
+Concrete: 20th century
Plans: flat-cut, lower then furniture, higher than
windowsill, circulation, wall width; bathroom fixtures
and residential core (elevator)
Sections: vertical-cut, people, spactial relationship,
Simeon de Witt (geo); John Rutherfurd
(law, pol); Governeur Morris (pol)
William Penn, Philadelphia, Grid City
Pierre Charles L’Enfant, Washington 1791:
inspired by Versailles
Georges-Eugene Haussmann, Paris blvd
(dictatorship): liberation of middle class,
green, water and sewage system, parisan
apt block
Ildefons Cerda, infinite urbanization of
Barcelona 1859 vs finite city building (theory
1867): scientific approach of chamfered
corners; ‘Ruralize the urban, urbanize the
rural’ 1867
3 Winners of Vienna Ringstrasse 1858; civil
Elisha Otis, Elevator patent 1861
William Le Baron Jenney: Leitner Building
1879, Home Insurance Building 1884, Fair
Store 1890, Second Leitner Building 1889
H.H. Richardson, Marshall Field Wholesale
Store 1885
Burnham & Root, The Rookery Chicago
1888, Monadnock Building 1891, Reliance
Building 1890
Dankmar Alder and Louis Sullivan,
Auditorium Building 1889, Wainwright/G
Building 1891, Gaurenty Building 1896
Joseph Paxton, Crystal Palace, 1851:
standardization, modulation, new building
type, Chateau de Ferrieres 1855
Victor Baltard, Les Halles 1852-70
Gustave Eiffel, Louis Auguste Boileau, Le
Bon Marche Department Store 1876, Eiffel
Tower 1889, Garabit Viaduct 1880
Paul Sedille, Le Printemps Department Store
Preludes and Overtures
Cities are a collective product
new NY : generic streets: comm
urban BAR : generic s&b: 1
overlay PAR monument s&b: 1
mend VIE monument s&b : comm
Steel Frames, transparent
architecture, elevator innovation, non-
load-bearing walls
Jenney (precursor of 1910/60)
Sullivan, The Tall Office Building
Artistically Considered 1896
STEELWORK brought a jump in scale
1850 - 1900
History in hindsight: Beginnings,
precursor, prelude, proto-
Modern societies and cities
New needs: urban housing, public
comprehensive plans for complete
New materials: Steel and concrete
Architecture: in words and images,
beyond its existence as a useful
object (.1%)
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Corbusier: Structure does not dictate form, thanks to
Point or Slab buildings
Curving buildings shaped for light
N, compass shows direction of light
axonometric (iso, di, tri) v.s. perspective
John Fowler, Benjamin Baker, Fifth of Forth
Bridge, 1890
Victor Contamin (egn) Gerdinand Cutert,
Glaerie des machines 1889
Ferdinand Arnodin, pont transbordeur 1905
Francois Hennebique, Apt building 1892, w/
Maison Hennebique, Bourg-la-Reine, 1905
Last part of 19th century: NOVELTY
Materials: steel & reinforced concrete
Methods of production: industrial, mass, standard
Needs of changing society: urban middle class
Building types: market, dpt, urban housing
new materials and demand lead to new types; but
new types also spurs development and innovation
Events → Historical fact (selectivity)
(development of reinforced concrete)
*connect early experiments to later achievements
Paris Building Height Restriction Laws:
for safety and sanitization; undisturbed skyline
Francois Coignet: pioneer of reinf concrete 1860s
precursor to van der Rohe’s apartment block at the
Weissenhofsiedlung 1927
of EUROPE around 1850
Late 19th century: Arts and Crafts
(craftsmanship, artistic products)
1890 - 1914: Art Nouveau
1920s- : Modern Architecture
“The contradictory nature of... synonyms.. refer to..
Secession Style, Modern Style, New Style, National
Romanticism, Jugendstil… overlap… diversity,
complexity, ambiguity and pan-European..” Jeremy
Howard, Art Nouveau, 2
1900s architects
Wright, Berlage, Mackintosh, Horta, Gaudi, Perret,
Behrens, Guimard
Otto Wagner’s manifesto “Modern Architectur” 1896
Secession’s Floral motif
Wiener Wekstatte 1903 - between industrialization &
Adolf Loos “Ornament and Crime” (1911/1929)
LOOS also contributed to Modernism
Exceptions to the Paris Law
Gustave Eiffel, Eiffel Tower 1889
Eugene Beaudouin, Tower Montparnasse
Herzog & de Meuron, Triangle Tower 2011
Charles Rennie Mackintosh, School of Art
1897-1909, chairs 1900, The Willow
Tearoom 1903
> Steven Holl, Reid Building 2014
- asymmetrical entrance
- free form
- curvilinear
- Scottish Castle inspired
- transitionary change
- Fire of May 2014
Mackay Hugh Baillie Scott, Blackwell 1898-
Victor Horta, Tassel House 1895, Horta
House 1898-1900, Solvay House 1898-1900
- married rich
- big self-esteem
- design everything (wall, light..)
Henry Van de Velde, Bloemenwerf House
1895, dress 1897, furniture 1900, Museum
Folkwang Essen 1902, Weimar School 1904-
11 (Grand-Ducal Saxon School of Applied
Hector Guimard, Castel Beranger 1898,
Metro entrances 1900-1912 (mass produced
steel parts)
Henri Sauvage, Villa Majorelle 1902 (natural
floral motif; mix material; free-standing
chimney fireplace)
Giovanni Michelazzi, Broggi House 1910
Alesund, Norway - after 1907 had an
abstract quality and curved elements
Stanislaw Witkiewicz, Villa Koliba 1892-94
remote place in Poland with Modern
Francizsek Maczynski, House Under the
Globe 1904-06
Odon Lechner, Museum of Applied Arts
1896, Postal Savings Bank building 1899-
1902 \roofscape/
New Forms
for a New Century
Art Nouveau (Jugendstil)
*reflecting social change, at infancy
youth, short-lived success, failed
attempt at innovation
‘National Styles’
1. Urban cosmopolitan
2. Peripheral national
Scotland: Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Belgium: Victor Horta, Henry Van de
France: Hector Guimard, Henri
Sauvage, Auguste Perret
Hungary: Odon Lechner
USA: Frank Lloyd Wright, Louis
Netherlands: H.P. Berlage
Germany: Peter Behrens
Austria: Joseph Maria Olbrich, Otto
Wagner, Josef Hoffmann, Adolf Loos
1895 - 1914
New Century, New Architecture
Art Nouveau
National and Cosmopolitan
New ornaments, no ornaments
crafts and industry
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Antoni Gaudi, Sagrada Familia 1883-2010,
Park Guell 1900-14: original, lively, variety of
form, Casa Mila 1906-12: Cerda’s 45*,
curvilinear, rich decor, furniture design, Casa
Batlo 1904, avoiding straight lines, sculpted
walls \roofscape/
Mikhail Eisenstein, apartment building 1903,
integrated sculpture, 1910 free form in Riga
Lars Sonck, Telephone 1903-05,
scandanavian tradition but classical motifs in
Ferdinand Boberg, Post Office, 1900-06
Anton Rosen, Palace Hotel 1910
III. American Parallels - [evrythng designed]
Charles and Henry Greene, Gamble House
Frank Lloyd Wright, Home and Studio 1889-
Louis Sullivan: Carson, Pirie,Scott and
Company building, 1899
FLW: Unity Church 1906-7, anti-urban,
landscape, openness, escape from view, but
lets light-in; Robie House 1908-11, framed
landscape,introverted, change of direction
into new atmospheres, free fireplace
> Part of Wasmuth Portfolio in 1910:
disseminated into EU, a reversion of the EU-
centric idea, influenced 20s architecture,
supported by Berlage (influencial too)
GODFATHERS of Modern Achitecture
Proto-functionalists (unadorned, pure)
but reluctant → Corb, Gropius, Rohe
H.P. Berlage: Stock Exchange 1896-1903,
style reflecting stable society (w/o ornament
or style), exposed structure influences
markets and exhibits, integration of
sculpture, neoclassical concrete
Auguste Perret, Apartment building Rue
Franklin 1904; serving and served space,
courtyard law in Paris, concrete under
ceramic for humidity
Peter Behrens, AEG Turbine Factory 1909:
curtain wall, visual transparency, unadorned;
conversion of the AEG High Voltage Factory
1910; AEG electric kettles and appliances,
graphic design for AEG
Otto Wagner, Postal Office Savings Bank
1894-1902: secession movement, everything
designed, sculpture, air-vent, delicate stone
and marble, furniture; Majolicahaus 1898-99:
floral decoration, Linke Wienseile 40 and 38
(two fronts)
Max Fabiani, Portois & Fix 1899-1900
Joseph Maria Olbrich, Secession Building
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