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HIS344Y1 Study Guide - Foreign Policy Initiative, Comecon, Hellenic Army

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Vasilis Dimitriadis

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HIS344 Exam Review: The Truman Doctrine:
The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan
Their role in the division of Europe?
What were the main objectives of the Truman doctrine?
Root causes and main consequences of the Truman doctrine
oThe Marshall Plan was inextriacably linked to Truman’s Policy of Containment
oTruman Doctrine was reactive the deteriorating conditions in Greece and the fear of
similar political circumstances taking Europe by storm
oTruman Doctrine  directed against Soviet Expansionism  the overt use of US economic
might to pursue US foreign policy interests abroad.
oDivision- ideological division and inherent incompatibility
oParallel development  two distinct economic, political and ideological systems that
simply could not be reconciled.
oThe Truman doctrine was a manifestation of foreign policy resulting from the insecurities
and feats of soviet power filling the vacuum in Europe
oA divided geopolitical landscape
Key Ideas:
Marshall plan not only transformed western European economies, but had deep political
implications for the division of Europe
Interventionism a la latin America
Goals of the Marshall Plan:
A prosperous western Europe, a bulwark against soviet penetration and influence in the old
Declining British hygemony independence movements in Greece and Turkey and prospects of
communist penetration  vacuum for new ideological influence
Great Britain the historic protector of Greek independence was in decline
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GB was dependent on American emergency loans : grave economic crisis 1946-47 made it uable
to furnish Greece and turkey wth assistance and military aid that was urgently request
Communist led insurgencies in northern Greece troublesome
Feb 1947: British foreign offices notifies state department that dire economic circumstances wuld
oblige GB to terminate assistance to Greece and turkey
America Sees Opportunity:
Positive response to British plea for assistance
It had to be represented as an essential component of a new foreign policy initiative that was
necessary to protect the vital interest of the USA itself.
March 12 1947- Truman Speech in congress:
o“ support the free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by
outside pressure”  this was the essence of the Truman doctrine
ounconditional pledge of American assistance to countries anywhere in the world that were
threatned by external aggression from the USSR or an indigenous communist insurgency
backed by Moscow
o250 million for Greece
o150 million for turkey
othis was the beginning of what would become a multibillion dollar assiatance program to
countries that were deemed vulnerable to soviet intimidation or internal insurrection
oan assertive new foreign policy
ousa provided logistical help to the royal greek army, American advisers and military
equipment were used to overrun rebel forces
Kennan: The Sources of Soviet Conduct- the intellectual base for the policy of containment:
USSR age old sense of insecurity
Messianic ideology of Marxism lenninism drove the soviet union to probe weak spots all along its
periphery in a compulsive campaign to expand its power
Moscow would achieve these goals by:
oDirect annexation
oCreation of a subservient satellite
oWherever and whenever possible
Kennan believed that the USA alone was capable of imposing limits on USSR expansion
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