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Final

POL101Y1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Statelessness, Ethnic Nationalism, United Nations Relief And Rehabilitation Administration


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL101Y1
Professor
Jeffrey Kopstein
Study Guide
Final

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POL101 STUDY GUIDE MASTER
VERSION
WE CAN HANDLE THE RANDELL!
WEEK ONE: JAN 11 th
 WAR 
FIRST READING  TONY JUDT – THE PAST IS ANOTHER COUNTRY
o He believes that we are living in an unpolitical age of “forgetting”  this is out downfall
oWe are forgetting what truly happened during WW11  which was allegedly done in
order to help Europe become stable – economically and politically
oFrom the end of WWII  until the revolutions of 1989 – Term European was shaped by
two concerns
Pattern of division drafted at Yalta during the cold war
The desire to forget the past and create a new continent
In the west this created a movement for productivity that modernized the
Euro economy
Both sides had a good reason to put the past behind them  it created
divisive and more provincial claims an
WEEK TWO – JAN 18 TH
 REFUGEE CRISIS 
FIRST READING:  ORIGINS OF TOTALITARIANISM – ARENDT 
oEND of WWI  Dominating Euro powers were collapsing
oGrowing sense of ethnic nationalism was replacing the old civic form of nationalism
oThis period is best described as the decline of the nation state
Followinf WWI – sudden increase in people who did not fit in the country where
they were geographically situated – laws of new states covered majority groups
and minorities couldn’t really relate to this
Minority treaties  only recognized those with considerable numbers in at least
two of the succession states – it omitted all those who were without govt of their
own and in some states that equated to 50% of the population
Statelessness vs Displacement
Displacement is the notion that a stateless person would always be
repatriated or naturalized
Stateless persons – no right to work or residence  forced to break law to survive
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TWO DISTINCT Definitions of Nation State
oCIVIC FORM: defined nation by virtue of common citizenship in a shared political
community
oETHNIC NATIONALISM: Based on common culture, language religion etc
This transition in the nature of the nation was highlighted by the excess of
warfare amongst nations and by the internal division – political communities into
4 elements
1- state peoples – nationalities who had their own state
2- Equal partners – nationalities such as Slovaks in Czechoslovakia
which were seen as equal in the govt but weren’t actually seen that way
3- Minorities – recognized by treaties to whom states were not conceded
4 – Stateless people – those who had no govts to represent them thus
acted like outlaws
oUltimate freedom + sovereignty – is only attainable through national freedom – absence
of national emancipation – result in deprivation of basic human rights
oHuman rights should be universal but they are embodied in the membership of a state as a
pre req to have these rights
oArendt argues that humanity and all of society must ensure these rights are upheld,
not the nation-states alone and that international protection should be guaranteed
READING #2 COLIN BUNDY – MIGRANTS, REFUGEES, HISTORY, AND
PRECEDENTS
o1846-1914 – era of mass migration to the US at its peak – 30 mi immigrants from Europe
oIt was around this time that US + other nations started trying to control immigration and
be more selective as to who enters the country – passport/id was necessary
oRefugee crises:
First RC  WWI + 1917 Russian Revolution – first euro crises
Second RC  WWII
First 4 years – USSR + Germany uprooted, expelled, deported around 30
mi ppl – MAY 1945 – over 40 mi refugees in Europe – homeless and
running
At the end of the second world war with the exception of POLAND –
Boundaries were largely intact  ppl moved all over Europe
Ethnic Cleansing did not exist as a term but this whole displacement of
peoples was one way of it back in the day  doen by politicians to creat
ethnically homogenous states
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find more resources at oneclass.com

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This crisis had two important aspects
o1- 1947  UN Relief and Rehabilitation Admin (UNRRA) was
running nearly 800 camps – housing several 7 mi ppl
By 1951 – only 177,000 were in camps – most had been
resettled etc
o2 - However by 1951 new legal framework existed in order to
respond to the refugee crisis
Creation of the UN high Commissioner of Refugees
(UNHCR) to succeed the UNRRA
Third RC  1990s
1- break up of soviet union and the wars in what used to be Yugoslavia
2 – Wars by western powers in Iraq and Afghanistan (2 largest source of
refugees)
3 – 9/11 and the war on terror – triggered a wave of new attempts to
control and deny entry
oAka – harsher controls and refugees then trying to find other
ways of entry leads to desperate refugees depending on
smugglers etc
Fourth RC  2011 – spike in 2014 – 2015
War in Syria
Failed/fragile states in Libya Afghanistan Iraq Somalia Sudan
Democratic Republic of Congo
A growing inability of states in the global south to handle their refugee
populations
Rapid establishment of new routes for mass migration through the
Balkans – Eastern Europe - Towards places such as Germany – Sweden
– Denmark – UK
THIRD READING  ELIZABETH DUNN – THE FAILURE OF REFUGEE CAMPS
oThesis  due to the failure of refugee camps, the refugee crisis will remain a crisis
Failure of Refugee Camps – since 1950s
Western Europe had tried to keep displaced people out of its borders by
funding large scale refugee camps in 3rd world nations
NOT DURABLE SOLUTION
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
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