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PSY220H1 Study Guide - Henri Tajfel, Imber, Paul Klee

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Jason Plaks

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Andrew (youngjik) Lee
Prejudice: Disliking others
Prejudice is a negative prejudgement of a group and its individual members. An
antipathy based upon a faulty and inflexible generalization. Prejudice is a negative
attitude: combinations of feelings, inclinations to act, and beliefs.
Stereotype is a belief about the personal attributes of a group of people.
Problems with stereotypes arise when they are overgeneralized.
Discrimination is a negative behavior and often has its source in prejudicial attitudes
Racism and sexism are institutional practices that discriminate
Modern prejudice often appears subtly, in our preferences for what is familiar, similar,
and comfortable.
It is possible to have different conscious and automatic attitudes towards the same
Ex. Primed with images associated with black people, participants are more hostile to
annoying requests.
Ex. 9 in 10 white people took longer to identify pleasant words when associated with
black instead of white faces.
Ex. Correll and Greenwood (2002/2003). Participants had to !shoot" or !not shoot" men
that suddenly appeared (on-screen) holding a gun or harmless object. Participants more
often mistakenly shot targets who were black.
Ex. Payne and Judd (2001/2004). Participants more likely to recognize a gun in
association with black face.
Gender roles are expected behavior for males and females.
Leadership is more often attributed to men. Assertiveness can seem less becoming ion
a woman than a man.
Unequal status breeds prejudice. Once inequalities exist, prejudice helps justify
economic and social superiority of those with wealth and power. Stereotypes rationalize
such unequal status.
We tend to see other groups as competent or as likeable but not usually both. Respect
for competence of those high in status and like those who agreeably accept a lower
People often view enemies as subhuman and depersonalize them with labels.
Gender stereotypes help rationalize gender roles.
Social dominance orientation is a motivation to have one"s group be dominant over
other social groups.
Desire to be on top leads people high in social dominance to embrace prejudice and to
support political positions that justify prejudice. (maintain hierarchies)
Ethnocentric is belief that one"s ethnic and cultural group is superior. Tend to have
authoritarian tendencies, intolerance for weakness, punitive attitude, and submissive
respect for authority within group.
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