WDW151H- Order and Disorder 1 FINAL EXAM STUDY NOTES

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University of Toronto St. George
Woodsworth College Courses
Beth Fischer

WDW151 FINALS NOTES Quantitative Studies: broad, general data Qualitative Studies: smaller data and more detailed like interviews and documents. 1. Social Order Social order can be formed by: cooperation, coordination and communication. Coordinate actions that develop stable expectations about others’ behaviour Cooperation to attain common goals and work together for the same end. Free-rider problem: hoping others will work to improve community but would prefer to enjoy benefits without making too much effort themselves 2. Rationality: Why do we act the way we do? Our behaviour are motivated by: values, emotion, tradition, rationality Rational models of Decision Making: simplifications that are useful when trying to understand complex environments like societies, markets, government behaviour. 3. Tragedy of the Commons Public Goods: Resources available for everyone but no organization/person controls; trust is an example. People tend to care more of whatever is their own (self-interest), so the idea of specialization is beneficial for the benefit of the society. 4. How do we cope with chaos and complexity? I. Organization: we subconsciously try to organize it II. Selective attention: we ignore it and filter information because our brains are capable of retaining 7 bits of random data (Information overload). III. Change blindness: we overlook stuff IV. Confirming bias: we avoid, ignore, challenge, discount because we seek to confirm that we were right all along; We only pay attention to stuff that confirms what we already believe. V. Status quo bias: we stick with what we know 5. Important people Tocqueville: groups help individuals to internalize cooperative values. Freedom is beneficial for social order because voluntary associations promote value of cooperation and bring people close and aid each other to work toward the common goals (His experiment in America). Durkheim: anomy occurs during rapid change and disorder. Internalization is a solution to problem of order. Without regulation, people are distressed as “the more one has, the more one wants”; need regulation to restrain individual passions. Norms bring social order. Schwartz: the paradox of choice. Hobbes: strong central state is essential for attainment of social order because people are rational agents who calculate the expected benefits and costs of their actions and act so as to attain their most desired ends. Engels: interest of dominant class and working class are at offs; the state is necessary for our society because we have classes. Weber: people act given their internal states (behavioural mechanism) but in legitimate orders, people are willing to obey rules of their own accord. 3 kinds of authority structures are patrimonial, bureaucratic and charismatic. Hayek: cosmos and taxis; norms bring social order. Goffman: gender affects how our society is structured and how we interact with one another. Hechter: Groups promote social order; they influence us to be interdependent & cooperative in the society by the connections we make and the norms that we learn from the groups. Networks are important for social order because it brings coordination for society; allows us to share values & information & interact with numerous people. In heterogeneous societies, small groups and their norms makes it easier to achieve order as they can supervise their actions due to their small sizes. Hierarchy (government) is needed to enforce laws upon us because it is difficult to satisfy all of our desires. 6. Norms Informal rules for how we should behave, speak, dress, and what we should expect out of life. They arise to promote coordination and cooperation; evolve over time and differ and vary in regions, groups and social situation (Ariely); are powerful and ubiquitous yet subtle. Herding Instinct: feeling safe and confident when we do what others are doing; makes us comply with norms even when we don’t agree with them and leads to conformity. Examples: Emperor’s Dilemma and Asch experiment. Pluralistic ignorance: situations where the majority reject a norm but incorrectly assume that most others accept it. 7. Ethnography Field research where one observes peoples’ action in “real world” settings with the objective to understand social meanings. Example: de Tocqueville, Democracy in America 8. Cosmos and Taxis Cosmos: spontaneous order; it evolves and can be more complex because they’re implicit. Examples are la
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