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Final

Computer Science 60-104 Final: Study Guide

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Department
Computer Science
Course
60-104
Professor
E.El- Habash
Semester
Winter

Description
Final Exam Study Sheet Chapter 1 – 10 questions • VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol)  a technology where a broadband Internet connection is used to place telephone calls instead of the regular phone system • Convergence  a process which several technologies with distinct functionalities evolve to form a single product • Blog  publicly accessible personal journal posted on the Web • Wiki  software that allows users to collaborate to create, change, and link Web pages • File  named collection of data that exists on a storage medium (ex. hard disk) • Digitalization  the process of converting text, numbers, sound, photos, and video into data that can be processed by digital devices • Supercomputer  fastest and most expensive type of computer, capable of processing trillions of instructions per second • Mainframe computer  a large, fast, expensive computer used by businesses or government agencies to provide centralized storage, processing, and management for large amount of data • Analog data  data measured or represented on a continuously varying scale (ex. dimmer switch) • Digital data  text, numbers, graphics, or sound represented by discrete digits • Binary number system  a method for representing numbers using only two digits: 0 and 1 • Data vs. Information  the symbols of that a computer uses to represent facts and ideas (Data); a collection of data which is presented as something that people can understand and use (information) • Unicode  a 16-bit character-representation code that can represent more than 65,000 characters • EBCDIC (Extended Binary-Coded Decimal Interchange Code)  a method by which digital computers, usually mainframes, represent character data • Machine code  program instructions written in binary code that the computer can execute directly • Register  a “scratch pad” area of the microprocessor into which data or instructions are moved so that they can be processed • Authentication protocol  passwords, user IDs, and biometric measures used to verify a person’s identity • White hat  described as a hacker who ethically enters an organization's security system in order to test its effectiveness • Black hat  this person would be unethically entering a computer system for their own personal gain Chapter 2 – 5 questions • Peripheral device  a component or equipment, such as a printer, that expand a computer’s input, output or storage capabilities • Word Size  the number of bits that a CPU can manipulate at one time, which is dependent on the size of the registers of the CPU, and the number of data lines in the bus • ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)  the part of the CPU that performs arithmetic and logical operations on the numbers stored in its registers • RAM (Random Access Memory)  computer memory circuitry that holds data, programs instructions, and the operating system while the computer is on • Volatile  requires electrical power to hold data • Non-volatile • Magnetic Storage  a technology for recording data onto disks or tape by magnetizing particles of an oxide-based surface coating • Optical Storage  a technology that records data as light and dark spots on a CD, DVD, or other optical media • Control Panel  A window you can open to adjust various aspects of your computer, such as the volume, fonts, desktop background, mouse speed, and clock • Registry • Safe Mode  a menu option that appears when Windows is unable to complete the boot sequence Chapter 3 – 5 questions • Groupware  software that enables multiple users to collaborate on a project, usually through a pool of data that can be shared by members of the workgroup • Software Suite  a collection of individual applications sold as one package • Cell reference o Absolute Cell Reference  in a worksheet formula, cell references (usually preceded by a $ symbol) that cannot change as a result of a move or copy operation o Relative Cell Reference  in a worksheet, a cell reference that can change if cells change positions as a result of a move or copy operation • Formula  a combination of numbers and symbols that tells the computer how to use the contents of cells in calculations in spreadsheets • Shareware  copyrighted software marketed under a license that allows users to use the software for a trial period and then send in a registration fee if they wish to continue to use it • Freeware  copyrighted software that is given away by the author or copyright owner • Open Source Software  software that includes its source code, allowing programmers to modify and improve it • Public Domain Software  software that is available for public use without restriction except that it cannot be copyrighted • Executable File  a file (in .exe format) containing instructions that tell a computer how to perform a specific task • Uninstall Routine  a program that removes software files, references, and registry entries from a computer’s hard disk • Operating System  the software that controls the computer’s use of its hardware resources, such as memory and disk storage space • Software Patch  a section of software code designed to modify an existing program to fix a specific error or add a feature • Validation code Chapter 4 – 15 questions • Multiuser operating system  an operating system that allows a single computer to deal with simultaneous processing requests from multiple users • Multitasking operating system • Network operating system • Memory leak  an operating system does not correctly allocate memory for programs causing parts of one program to overwrite parts of others and malfunction • User interface  the software and hardware that enable people to interact with computers • Graphical user interface  a type of user interface that features on- screen objects (ex. menus and icons) manipulated by a mouse • Command-line interface  a style of user interface that requires users to type commands • Bootstrap program  a program stored in ROM that loads and initializes the operating system on a computer • Kernel  the core module of an operating system that typically manages memory, processes, tasks, and storage devices • Virtual Machine  software that creates an operating environment that emulates another computer platform • Bootcamp • UNIX  a multi-user, multitasking server operating system developed by AT&T BELL Lab in 1969 • Linux  an operating system that is a derivative of UNIX, available as freeware, and widely used for servers though it is also used on personal computers and workstations • Finder • Windows Explorer  a file management utility included with most Windows operating systems that helps users manage their files • Incremental Backup  a backup that contains files that changed since the last backup • Full Backup  a copy of all the files for a specified backup job • Differential Backup  a copy of all the
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