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Psychology 46-422 Final: Important Names for 46-422 Exams

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J.Hakim- Larson

Important Names for Midterm Aristotle  Emotions needed to be kept under control through reasoning. Some people were better at reasoning and logic than others (history: men were better than women). Bought slavery because people that did not have reasoning had to be controlled by someone more capable (more reasoning).  He talked about anger and pride. Reason he was interested in these is because it had to do with the concept of ethics. (Ethics are how do you live a good life?)  Ethics involves how you live a good life. Is there a time which you’re right to be angry and when is it okay to have pride and when it is not okay.  Justifiability of certain emotions.  Ex. is there a right time to be angry? Does too much pride or too much anger exist?  He was the concept of moderation in all things. Having the right emotion at the right time at the right amount  student of Plato; the if-then reasoning; big impact on western thinking o He believed that emotions need to be kept under control through reason o Some people are more logical than others (ex. males than females; and ethnic groups than other groups)  reason for slaves A. Damasio  Classes of Emotion: o Primary Darwinian emotions (across cultures and mammals) o Social emotions (empathy, pride, pity, shame) o Background emotions (organization of arousal and affect into patterns called surging, fading, accelerating, exploding) o Synchrony and play o Positive vs. Negative emotion regulation R. Descartes  Father of modern western philosophy. He believed the mind and body were separate. Emotion disrupts a person in having a good life, people should avoid hatred, anger, frustration  He did not agree with everything the Stoics had to say but he believed that one has to control their emotions.  Everyone has passion and emotions, self-observation is important S. Greenspan  Greenspan was the one who fixed the sibling rivalry in the film (Life's first feeling)  Kids who don’t like cuddling by parents or touched by parents will have a hard time with attachment and disrupt attachment  But in the film, the kid is always on alert, always looking around, and had visual interest  Mother then start playing visual games with the child to have some shared positive emotional experience  The same thing might happen at a different age (ex. teens)  Parents must find a way to connect with their children positively  Sensory motor schema by Greenspan  children start to symbolize those sensory schemas (children symbolize schemas through sensory motor activity and the action for the schema)  Thus our senses are linked up to our emotions  Stages of Early Emotional Development o 0-3 months  Homeostasis/self-regulation (the child tries to self-regulate his/her emotions) o 2-7 months  attachment/love (children want to learn about things around them and engage in them) o 3-10 months  purposeful communication (purposely communicate with others and express their feelings) o 9-18 months  organized, integrated patterns o 18-48 months  representational capacity (children start to explode in language, and express everything that they learn) J. Kagan  Kagan proposed that emotion is a psychological phenomenon controlled by brain states and that specific emotions are products of context, the person’s history, and biological make-up  also explained emotion as occurring in four distinct phases: o brain state (created by an incentive) o the detection of changes in bodily movement o the appraisal of a change in bodily feeling o the observable changes in facial expression and muscle tension  emotions vary in magnitude and usually differ across ages and when expressed in different contexts  he argued that research in emotion studies should be free of ambiguous and coded terms, and this emphasis on specificity remains a recurring theme in his current research on emotion  best known of temperament (began his work on it after his research in Guatemala) o primarily focused on children’s fear and apprehension o defined two types of temperament:  inhibited  refers to a shy, timid, and fearful profile of a child  uninhibited  refers to the appearance of bold, sociable and outgoing behaviours o his research in examining if behavioural inhibition in adulthood can be predicted by certain behavioural characteristics in infants found that these characteristics have the ability to influence later behaviour depending on how they interact with the environment o also believed that there is no guarantee of an indefinitely stable profile considering environmental factors are always changing and that both genes and environmental factors influence a child’s temperament J. Loevinger  Ego levels o Lifespan development o Based on psychoanalytic, cognitive developmental psychology o Involves how deeply the person thinks about their emotional experience, their life, themselves and things around them o Sentence completion projective test (how to score this test) was derived from empirical studies and major developmental theories  originally had 36 items o It's a projective test when the person projects their thoughts through sentence completion  Ratings according to the developmental levels o Out of context scoring  scoring without knowing who's answering that particular item  Used to test females, now used by both genders  Loevinger's Ego Levels o Level 1-Impulsive  Rigid dichotomy in responses or only one end of a continuum  Self-centered and dependent. Traditional responsibilities are recognized as burdens (i.e., have to do these things whether you like it or not)  Affects/emotions = bodily states or impulses  Sexual and aggressive terms are blatant and unsocialized  Limited emotional range o Level 2- Self-Protective (Opportunistic)  Blatant opportunism, deception, and coercion at the extreme  Primary pre-occupation is self-protection and staying out of trouble  Tries to be on guard to control the situation (cautious, careful)  Manipulative, exploitive attitude toward people  The world is seen as divided into ruler and ruled, those who take advantage of you and those whom you can take advantage of. Shows up in male-female and parent-child relations  Simple hedonism  Dependant complaining, especially against people in authority..  Blames other people for trouble or failures  Hostile, callous humor directed against the test-giver or others. Frequent on items that evoke sympathy, sentiment, or idealization o Level 3- Transition from Self-Protective to Conformist  Concrete aspects of traditional sex roles  Obedience and conformity to social norms are simple, absolute  Emotions are quasi-physical  Physical causation rather than psychological  Concrete cleanliness and physical appearance are emphasized o Level 4- Conformist  Conceptually simple  Statements are made in absolute terms without exceptions  Sweeping generalizations of people and situations  Absolute standards of right and wrong, key words may include ‘always’, ‘never’, ‘everyone  Conventions, social norms are accepted without question or personal evaluation  Values pleasing, friendly personality, likes to be part of a group  Depends on popularity and the expression of social approval  Belonging leads to secure feelings  Concerned with physical appearance and attractiveness  Pre-occupied with the concrete external aspects of life  Interpersonal interaction described behaviorally  Good life = your work is all done and you have lots of money  People are classified in superficial, demographic ways. Rigid sex roles o Level 5- Self-Aware/ Transitional from Conformist to Conscientious  Able to see multiple possibilities and alternatives.  Tends to think about rightness in terms of the appropriate time, place, and situation  Global, banal contingencies and exceptions and comparisons are given, not well differentiated  Self-consciousness is prototypic, also self-awareness and self-criticism. Discomfort in social situations, feelings of loneliness, and social embarrassment  Aware of feelings. Interest in appearance is expressed in feelings (worry, concern, moods, sensitivity)  Banal, ordinary responses are given about health, illness, death, religion, and God o Level 6- Conscientious  Shows conceptual complexity, combines alternatives that are polar opposites  Excessive feeling of controlling, moulding others (which contrasts with respect for other’s autonomy at Level 8)  Achievement motivation is at its peak. Strives for accomplishment and self- improvement  Problems: procrastination, wasting time, disorganization  Strong sense of responsibility for duties. Guilt over the consequences of actions as opposed to guilt over breaking rules. Has a conception of privilege, rights, justice, fairness  Has own self-evaluated standards of morality  Self-critical but also has self-respect  Interested in mutuality and interpersonal communication o Level 7- Transition from Conscientious to Autonomous  Most responses are unique  Sees paradox. Interpersonal relationships are cherished and they are seen as continuing and changing over time  Greater complexity in view of interpersonal interaction. Psychological causality is complex.  Shows greater interest in process and change  Distinguishes inner life from outer life and psychological from physical and physiological responses  Conflicts are internalized. Aware of contrasting or conflicting emotions. Conflict is in the self, instead of between one’s own needs and society’s requirements  Comes to have a true toleration of others, puts up with others (not a complete acceptance though)  Good-natured humor (not hostile)  May worry about trivia o Level 8- Autonomous  Rich variety of topics are mentioned  Toleration for ambiguity  Feels inner conflict in full force (process-oriented). Strives to cope with it or find some means of transcending it  Cherishes individuality, uniqueness in self and others  Respect for other’s autonomy is clearly expressed  Views the self in an interpersonal context and sees the complexity and circularity of social interaction  Concerned with communicating feelings. Emotions are differentiated, clearly conveyed within a wide range  Displays spontaneity, genuineness, sensitivity to life’s paradoxes. Non-hostile, existential humor  Concern for broad social perspective or issues o Level 9- Integrated  In combination within a single response are some of the following: existential humor, paradox, respect for others’ autonomy, search for self-fulfillment, values justice and idealism, opposition to prejudice, coping with inner conflict, reconciliation of role conflicts, appreciation of sex in the context of mutuality, and reconciliation to one’s destiny  Conceptual complexity in some form is always present (e.g., conflict, contradiction, alternative constructions of a situation or subtler complexities such as intolerance of prejudice  Responses are vivid, touching, poetic  Responses unite the specific and the general  New here is the search for identity that is not expressed as a cliché  Identity problem involves reconciliation of roles, striving for one’s own autonomy, individuality, self-fulfillment and recognizing other people’s right to theirs M. Lewis  view of emotional development is distinguished by an emphasis on the normative development of the self (their preferred term) and an emphasis on developmental patterns that is similar to that of Piaget  Lewis and Michalson's view identifies five periods or stages, one from about birth to 3 months, a second from about 4 to 8 or 9 months, a third from about 9 to 12 months, a fourth from 12 to 18 months, and the fifth after 18 months of age.  Socialization of Emotion o Elicitors (stimuli influenced by culture)  some cultures do things that are acceptable while other cultures are not o Receptors (cognitive structures influenced by biological temperament)  ex. impulsivity o States (internal physiological states, can be unconscious or conscious)  even infants are thought to have emotional states but they might not be consciously aware of it o Expressions (nonverbal and verbal)  these are displayable emotions o Experience (inner subjective, cognitive understand of emotion)  in relation to physical environment, requires access to language  A year to 18 months  babies develop a sense of self and self-awareness  Infants have emotional states but it's not until you have a sense of self to experience an emotional state o Regulation (involves self-soothing and coping)  involves coping strategy; infants can regulate themselves by self-soothing  Self-conscious emotions: embarrassment, pride, shame, and guilt o Self-conscious emotions occur when we evaluate ourselves against a standard, rule or goal (SRG) o The “self” plays a major role in the self-conscious emotions and children learn from their families and cultures how to self-evaluate o Shame is linked to bodily exposure and toileting (hide or cover your face or body) and there is negative evaluation
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