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Ecology Lec 12 (competition) summary.docx

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Biology 2483A
Hugh Henry

Ecology Lec 12 Competition- interaction in which both are harmed because they have to share a limiting resource Intraspecific vs interspecific competition Resources- features of environment that can be consumed to depletion - Food, light(plants), water in terrestrial, space etc Physcial factors- abiotic, NOT consumed, not resources - temp, pH, salinity Competition can intensify when resources are scarce - below ground competition- intense when N is limited - above ground competition- intense when light is limited Competition important?- shown but biased - no competition, not published - show studies that show competition Exploitation competition- compete indirectly, reduce resources for the other as they use it Interference competition- compete directly, fight for prey or territory - even in plants- barnacles- crush & smothering others - cudzoo vine- grow on to shade others - Allelopathy- release toxins to harm another Results often asymmetrical- one is harmed more than the other (sometimes driven to extinct’n) Competition can occur in distantly related species (as long as competing for the same resource) - e.g. rodents vs ants.. overlapping seed size that they eat Competition can influence distribution of species - e.g. barnacle species- one only near the water surface, other everywhere else - Natural experiment- situation in nature similar to controlled experiment Competitive exclusion principle- species that use a limited resource in the same way- cannot coexist Resource partitioning- species using the same resource in different ways- can coexist e.g.- A uses red light & B uses green light - Both grown in red - A drives B to extinction - Both grown in green- B drives A to extinction - Both grown in white- BOTH live Lotka Volterra Competition Model dN  N N   1  1 N11 1 2  α & β = competition coefficients dt  K 1 
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