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Environmental Science 1021F/G- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 57 pages long!)


Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
ENVSCI 1021F/G
Professor
Christie Stewart
Study Guide
Final

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Western
Environmental Science 1021F/G
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

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Air Part 1: Air Pollution
The Atmosphere
Several layers
o Different temps, pressure, density, and composition
1) Thermosphere
a. Anything above thermosphere is outer space
2) Mesosphere
3) Stratosphere (17-50 km)
4) Troposphere (0-17 km)
a. More matter near surface of Earth due to gravity
Stratosphere
Composition similar to troposphere
o Has less vapour & matter
o More ozone (ozone layer)
Good Ozone: keeps UV from reaching Earth’s surface O+UV Sun=Good O
Quality of Ozone depends on where it is in atmosphere
Stratosphere: good
Troposphere: bad
Troposphere
Contains the air we breathe
o N (78%), O (21%), water vapour (0-4%), CO2 (0.038%) (Greenhouse
Gases), & Ar (<1%)
Nutrient Cycling: nutrients move from soil to atmosphere if certain
components are not used up
Responsible for weather and climate
Bad Ozone (ground level ozone: this is NOT a layer): VOCs+NOx+Sun=Bad
O3
Outdoor Air Pollution
Air Pollution: chemicals in the atmosphere @ concentration high enough to
affect climate/harm organisms and materials
o Increasing due to fossil fuels (car emissions especially)
Sources:
o Mobile human
Planes, cars, ships
o Stationary human
Factories
o Natural
Dust, volatile organic compounds (VOC) from plants, plant
decay, forest fires, volcanoes, sea spray
Types:
o Primary Pollutants: SO2, Nitrogen Monoxide/Dioxide (NOx), Carbon
Monoxide/Dioxide (COx), Particle Matter (PM)
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o Secondary Pollutants: Bad Ozone, Sulfuric Acid, Nitric Acid
Natural Factors Reducing Formation of Air Pollution:
o Rain
o Snow
o Salty Sea Spray
o Wind
Natural Factors Increasing Formation of Air Pollution:
o Buildings
Prevent winds from disbursing pollutants in atmosphere
o Mountains
Prevent winds from disbursing pollutants in atmosphere
o Temperatures
We need high temperatures in order to increase smog itself
(part of the equation)
o Grasshopper effect
Patterns in air movement
Results in higher concentrations of pollutants in different areas
Smog
1) Photochemical Smog
VOC+NO(x)+heat+UV=100s pollutants (including BAD ozone)
NO2 is the cause of the brownish haze
o Vehicles produce these chemicals
o Smog seen over a city is most likely photochemical smog,
causing by cars/vehicles
Hotter temps lead to higher levels
o NOx+VOCs+heat+UV=100s pollutants
o Humans: irritate eyes, respiratory tract
Damage to crops/trees
o Reduces chlorophyll, decreases photosynthesis
o Limits NPP
How Can Trees Cause Photochemical Smog?
o Some species emit VOCs
Problematic if forested areas close to urban areas
Especially urban areas with high NOx and sunlight
Selectivity in species planting encouraged in urban
areas
Considerations for tree farms
Increasing Smog:
o Grasshopper Effect… smokestacks make smog go other places
but then it just collected and goes to poles
Decreasing Smog:
o Precipitation…. Pollutants go in water
2) Industrial Smog
Smog from industry is grey
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