Sociology 2240E Study Guide - Functional Analysis, Symbolic Power, Charismatic Authority
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January 16, 2014
• Every theorist has had to deal with Marx’s concerns, dealing with the giant (Karl
• There was no such thing as a fact that stands by itself, and that all assertions of
facts are always related to valued biases. Just because something is biased doesn’t
mean it’s irrelevant, and there’s such thing as no bias in social theory.
• There can be neutral claims is you’re doing social descriptions
• Movie: Talked about 3 major themes - religion, politics, military and economy all
in American society which tie to the event of 9/11.
- The president is very concerned with his relationship with Christ. Learning
that presidents and god are like friends and that you can’t be president
without believing in god shows that there’s a relationship between authority
and god. Religion is being portrayed as being integrated with each other. ex)
Christ, Bush, Pro Israel and that everything is nicely integrated.
- Consensus theorists and organists are the same. Look at revolutions, wars,
strikes on the street.
Conflict theorist: Atomist. Content to look at what appears to be an organic
system but instead sees tensions. Looking for evidence of disruption. Marx
is a conflict theorist. Nothing that appears to be stable is stable. Conflict can
appear why you appear healthy and that you are healthy but also takes into
sense that you’re dying. Acknowledges the appearance of solidarity. Always
looking beneath the surface, and not looking to trust what seems to appear
on the surface and that it’s always suspicious. Doesn’t actually mean actual
conflict, just potential for conflict most of the time
- Barnyard socialism - criticisms of the social welfare system. Socialism
ignores responsibility. Conservatives will say it’s charity.
•(not sure if part of bias) Historical and structural totality (historical materialism or the
materialistic conception of history) all ways of talking about how Marx
understands social history
- Always demanding that we understand that every period of history is related
intimately with every period of history.
- Circles are interconnecting for a reason and that you can’t understand the
present without understanding the past and the future. If you look in
capitalism you’ll see the echoes of feudalism and the potentials of socialism.
- Intersections are periods of turmoil and that they’re obvious periods of
revolution and qualitative change. They represent the moment of which the
first circle starts to become obviously the second circle. The dialectical leap
is the negated of the negated as the first circle declares itself.
- Bottom of the circles represent material reality, and that it’s the reality of
things and existence.
- The numerators of the circles are spheres of culture, like everything and
anything that could be called culture. Theorists call the upper circle the
domain of the ideal which is known as the domain of the idea and not the
good. Marx will agree that there’s a relationship between material reality and
idea, like what we do will influence how we think and what we think. He’ll
argue that the arrow represents the dominant causal relationship, so what we
do will likely be the cause of what we think, but it’s not the dominant cause.
- First circle = primitive communism. Last circle (not closed) = communism.
Last circle isn’t closed (not sure what that circle will become of, but he
knows it’s not going to be the previous circles).
- If Marx said that the communism is an echo of the first one then in a sense,
history has been a tragedy of our species. History is the tragedy of the
rediscovering of what we wanted to do, and that it’s been the act of
forgetting and discovering of what we once knew.
- History for Hegel was simply the process of reason coming to know what it
always was. Hegel’s diagram is significant to Marx because the projecting
moment is the alienation and that's where Marx gets the idea of separating
from ourselves. Turns Hegel upside down in order to make his circle
argument, because Hegel’s is ideal and that what makes the power go around
is the idea, and that reason is determining what we are dealing with in our
life and that Marx thinks it’s the other way around and that what we’re
dealing with our life is determining reason, he’s inverting causal
relationships in reality and ideas and saying that y causes x.
• Human nature
- The reason why we’re a human being for Marx is because of labor since we
do things. We do it through objectification and that we have an idea that
drives the labor.
- Labor is the manipulation of some environment property, that I am
modifying with my idea.
- 3 elements; idea, labor, and object are what makes people a human being, it’s
not just one of them but it’s all three of them. Anything that gets in the way
of this connection stops me from being a human being. For Marx 99.99% of
history has been devoted to getting in the way of being a human being. We
only know ourselves as a function of the labor we have engaged in. Species
being can only be derived that labor is shared, and it’s this realization that
makes things very complicated and that it’s the essence of the radical nature
of Marx’s work.
- We recognized that we can connect our labor, we realize it because it’s
required in how we ought to do it. Can’t think of any oughts before we
realize can. When I recognize my activities is coordinated with another
human being, it’s that realization with my concern in how that coordination
ought to work and that it’s extremely relevant and constant because our labor
is always coordinated and can’t get rid of the ought question.
- Not logically possible to avoid the moral point of view or concern and that
it’s not possible to logically ignore the human existence, it’s possible to
repress it but you cannot logically ignore them. Certain things in society
have been extremely successful at teaching us to repress our moral concerns
because if they had not been successful, then everybody in this room would
be pissed off. Human nature and species beings underlie his theory.
January 16, 2014: every theorist has had to deal with marx"s concerns, dealing with the giant (karl. Marx: there was no such thing as a fact that stands by itself, and that all assertions of facts are always related to valued biases. The president is very concerned with his relationship with christ. Learning that presidents and god are like friends and that you can"t be president without believing in god shows that there"s a relationship between authority and god. Religion is being portrayed as being integrated with each other. ex) Christ, bush, pro israel and that everything is nicely integrated. Consensus theorists and organists are the same. Look at revolutions, wars, strikes on the street. Content to look at what appears to be an organic system but instead sees tensions. Nothing that appears to be stable is stable. Conflict can appear why you appear healthy and that you are healthy but also takes into sense that you"re dying.