Study Guides (400,000)
CA (160,000)
Western (10,000)
SOC (1,000)
Final

Sociology 2266A/B Final: 2266 Final Exam Review


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 2266A/B
Professor
Jennifer Reynolds
Study Guide
Final

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 44 pages of the document.
2266 Final Exam Review
Lectures 8-12
Lecture #8- November 1st 2016
Strain and Social Structure Theories of Crime
What is social structure?
- The way in which our society is organized ex: family, education, religion
- Our social structure is stratified based on status and roles that people have, this means
that people in lower classes are left with less money, resources, etc.
- Society contains mutually containing parts and everyone has a role to play
3 Key Sociological Explanations for Crime
1. Crime is the result of an individual’s location within the structure of society
- If you’re in a lower class, you are more likely to be involved in traditional street crime
- All about the social structure/environment that someone is born into
2. Crime is the end product of various social processes, especially inappropriate
socialization and social learning
3. Crime is a product of class struggle; the perspective emphasizes the nature of existing
power relations between social groups
- People who have no power or resources retaliate by participating in illegal behaviour’s
to make up for getting the short end of the stick
- Laws are meant to benefit the upper class
Social Structure Theories Defined
Social structural theories- they explain crime by reference to the economic and social
arrangements (or structure) of society
- Social structure theorists view members of socially and economically disadvantaged
groups as being more likely to commit crime, and they see economic and social
disenfranchisement as fundamental causes of crime
- Based on race, age, ethnicity to be more likely to commit crime. If you’re from a lower
class, you’re disadvantaged
Social Disorganization and the Chicago School
- First real criminology department to exist in the 1920’s-1930’s
- Social ecology was the first real development that came out of it
Social Disorganization Theory
- A perspective on crime and deviance that sees society as a kind of organism and crime
and deviance as a kind of disease or social pathology
- Social disorganization: a condition said to exist when a group is faced with
social change
uneven development of culture
maladaptiveness
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

disharmony
conflict and lack of consensus
- social ecology: the attempt to link the structure and organization of any human
community to interactions with its localized environment. The type of environment
someone is literally born into
- if you fix the environment, you can fix the disease. Crime is the symptom of something
else, need to fix the underlying problems
Chicago School of Ecology
- The first criminological theory to be developed in the US was the Chicago school of
human ecology
- Chicago School of Criminology: an ecological approach to explaining crime that
examined how social disorganization contributes to social pathology
- Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay
Social ecology describes the interrelations of human beings at the communities in which
they live
“natural” areas of crime- typically in places where there is social disorganization. Ex
vandalism, drugs, littering
The Criminology of Place
- builds upon the contributions of routine activities theory and situational crime
prevention, as well as the ecological approaches
- it emphasizes the importance of geographic location and architectural features as they
are associated with the prevalence of victimization
- broken windows theory: if you have a neighbourhood with broken windows, that sends
a message to other people who come into the community
- crime prevention: we should be cleaning up crime as soon as possible because a well
maintained community shows that the people within it care
Routine Activities Theory
- comes out of the criminology of place: there are certain environments that are inducive
of crime
- All three of the following need to be present
1. A suitable target is available: could be a person, an object, property, a building, etc.
2. There is a lack of a capable guardian to prevent the crime from happening: parents,
police, could be physical things like a car with an alarm signal
3. A motivated offender is present: someone who wants to commit the crime
- Developed by Cohen and Felson. Combined to call the problem analysis triangle,
describes how and why crime occurs and how/why certain people are more likely to be
victims
Motivated Offenders
- Why people commit crime
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Gain/need (poverty or a drug habit)
Society/experience/ environment (peer pressure, coercion, lack of education)
Beliefs (belief that some crimes aren’t wrong, protest)
- Looks at offender’s point of view, what they were thinking at the time
- A crime will only be committed if a motivated offender thinks the situation is suitable
Absence of a Capable Guardian
- A capable guardian is anything, either a person or a thing that discourages crime from
taking place. These can be formal or informal
Police patrol
Security guards
Locks
Fences
Lighting
A Suitable Target
- A person, place or object
- VIVA
Value: the offender must either value the target for what they gain or value the effect they
have on it
Inertia: the size or weight of an item can effect how suitable it is
Visibility: how visible a target is can affect its suitability
Access: if a target is easy to get to, this increases its suitability
CRAVED
- Not all products are equally at risk for theft
- They must be:
Concealable
Removable
Available
Valuable
Enjoyable
Disposable
- CRAVED items can also change over time
Strain Theory
- Based on social structure perspectives
- Durkheim anime theory: normlessness
When something happens, rapid social change and our norms are thrown upside down.
State of confusion and crime happens
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version