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Sociology 2267 final exam review.docx

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Western University
Sociology 2267A/B
Georgios Fthenos

Sociology 2267 – Exam Review Human Trafficking Criminal Code Enforcement: - 279.01: recruiting, transporting, transferring, receiving, holding, concealing, or harboring a person - 279.02: prohibits receiving material benefit for purpose of committing or facilitating exploitation of person - 279.03 – withhold or destruction of documents, such as victims travel documents, etc. - 279.04 – exploitation as causing person to provide labor or services by engaging in conduct that leads victim to reasonably fear for their safety or that of someone known to them, if they fail to comply Human Trafficking: - recruitment, transportation, or harbouring of person for purpose of exploitation - use force to maintain control over victims - fatal consequences for trying to escape - Domestic Human Trafficking: within country - International Human Trafficking: across international boarders Human Smuggling: - illegal form of migration  transport individuals across internationally (exchange for money) How are Victims Deceived? – direct contact with family/friends - agents  scout for potential victims in sources regions - potential sponsor/love interest - misleading advertisement promising jobs - marriage agencies  mail order brides - second wave recruiting  “go back home and find me more”  trust/brainwash Abusive: - coerced compliance, extortion, kidnapping, servitude, violence (physical/emotional) Who are Traffickers? – transnational organized crime groups (huge profit) - small family groups who control entire operation - individuals working independently  personal gain/profit Human Trafficking in Canada: - transit/destination for human smuggling - difficult to access: - clandestine nature of offences (kept secret) - reluctance of victims/witnesses to come forward to law enforcement (conservative estimate) Victims: - may not come forward: isolation, fear of returning to country of origin, fear of reprisals/retaliation to themselves or loved ones for traffickers, mistrust in government authorities, lack of understanding of rights, lack of info about services offered Victim Profile: - vulnerable - young (9-18), female (sometimes male) - poor, socially and/or cultural excluded (minorities) - under educated - coming from dysfunctional families and/or institutions - desire for better life, limited economic opportunities - politically unstable environments (Source country) - social, cultural and legal framework reinforce power imbalance (discriminatory labour practices or patriarchal social structures) - movement under duress (refugees) Sex Trade: - escort agencies: advertised in classified ads, community newspapers, websites with suggestive language/explicit pictures - massage parlors: offering services like “acupuncture” or “aromatherapy” performed by licensed masseuses - residential brothels: large family names in affluent neighbourhoods or smaller condominium units in city centres - dance clubs: exotic dancers Challenges: - victim cooperation: - Interpol: less than one percent of victims ever agree to cooperate with police/enter court to testify against traffickers - Stockholm Syndrome: positive feeling towards their abuser, negative feelings towards authorities attempting to rescue them - fear of reprisal: feel that cooperation with law enforcement would lead to reprisal against themselves or persons close to them Video – Stolen Lines: Canadians in Sex Trade: - not certain of their lives - abused by pimps, threatened, raped - abusive home, run away - had to pay back their pimp for shelter, etc. - all they know, what attention (always wanted) - get STDs - 7 years on the street (get STD, abuse, psychological effects) - pimp controls all aspects of their life - drug addiction - “John”: - like to get hookers because of rush/trill - don’t care about age - old men, cannot get their own girls (family men) - sex/money/drugs = addiction - demand isn’t going down, no demand = no exploitation - they feel worthless Under the Radar: Sexual Exploitation of Young Men - very limited data - Canada leads research of men in sex industry - sexual exploitation: abuse of children and youth by exchanging sexual activity for money, drugs, basic needs - young men invisible/ignored in issue of sexual exploitation - preliminary study (1994) of 50 young men involved in sex trade in Calgary (forced or coerced by adults) - 2002 – large scale study in Alberta, Sask., Manitoba, BC - national youth in crime: organization run by youth/adults from government care who advocate for youth - majority of respondents have history of physical and/or sexual abuse, had witnessed familial aggression during childhood/adolescence - more than half had child welfare intervention during childhood Key Demographic: - Aboriginal heritage, involvement with child protection services, education, running way, getting thrown out, sexual/physical violation, witnessing aggression while growing, involvement with police Working Life/Hustling of Sexually Exploited Young Men: - factors: physical/mental/emotional health - necessity/survival (food, shelter, clothing) - drug/alcohol dependency - family history (want attention) - involvement with “trade” can bring camaraderie/level of acceptance previously missing Age: - 73% enter trade under 18 (do it for economic survival) - adults, lack of employment skills/work experience - children/adolescents = greater risk, as work is often shortening dead end, or unregulated, encouraging them to purse illegal or qusai-legal sources of income - 12-19 (average age) - 83% in trade for 2 years +  stay twice as long as females - lack of preventative/intervention-based supports/services specific to men - women often exit through birth child (get social/state support) Work Location: - cars, hotels, apartments, truck stops, parks - find customers on chat lines, house parties, bars, lobbies, washrooms, street - walks and keeps moving, wear everyday clothes to remain undetectable Shelter Stays: - majority stay in homeless shelters - often runaways/throwaway - some report negative/unsafe experience within shelter - sex trade present means to avoid homelessness - sex trade involvement can create barrier to accessing shelter bonds Dissociation: - majority did not enjoy “working” in trade, felt victimized and traumatized - psychological dissociation is common response to chronic, serve childhood trauma - dissociating themselves from sex acts they were performing Family Relations: - strain/challenged before entering into trade - 69%  one family member was aware of involvement - 54%  difficult or nonexistent relationships with families Gay Basing: - humiliation/violence workers are at risk of from customers/community (safety at risk every time they worked) - “bad date”  customer who would harm or potentially kill respondents - being raped, attacked with weapon, not being allowed to leave drugs, kidnapped/taken out of town, worried about drive-by shooting - witnessed violence Common Preoccupations: - fear of never getting out - how they could improve their lives and relations of their families - common hope for safer/more rewarding lifestyle that could take pride in Working Safely: - do not hustle/work alone - stay in area that are “safe”/ “well-lit” - sugar daddy  relationship for security Hustling/Working and Drugs: - substance abuse = introduced once began working in trade - 100%  drugs eventually became “way of life” - drug use in private life, sex trade feeds drug addiction (keeps them in trade) Sexual Orientation: - gay for pay: straight male in non-hustling/working life but will become involved in sexual activities with male customers during period of work - straight for pay: gay men who will take on persons of straight male with work - transgender : person who crosses gender roles (transsexual, drag queens, transvestites), often will work as heterosexual, but low private transgender identity How to exit trade: - they want to exit it, but need to survive (necessity) - provide support services (support for existing), you want the help, go and find it - rehab for drugs, abuse, trauma (PDSD) Youth Gangs Introduction: - qualitative research gives opportunity to hear voices of members (hear their stories, see childhood, conditions to why they get involved) - gang-involved youth not born bad, but trained by violent/unhealthy adults to engage in violent offending - difficult to get good understanding of gangs of Canada - police-based estimates (likely inflated) - no commonly-accepted definition of gangs - levels of finding are in part dependent on low large gang problem is - lack of research focusing on prevalence across country (don’t want to do it, scared, ethics board wouldn’t approve it) - low-level street gangs are in state of constant flux Where are they located? - found in all provinces/territories (smaller population, hard to get true number) - interprovincial gangs and transnational gangs that are criminally sophisticated and highly organized - higher gang activity in Western Canada, GTA, York - very little in NWT Gang Typology in Canada: - gang involvement exists on continuum - degree of organization: - structure and hierarchal nature - connection to larger, more serious organized crime groups - sophistication and permanence - existence of specific code of conduct or set of formal rules (by-laws) - initiation practices - level of integration, cohesion, solidarity among members Street Level Gangs: - involved in serious crime/violence - some stability over time, membership is fluid - claim area/turf which they protect from other gangs - members identify themselves through common names, symbols, colours, signs, graffiti, clothing, etc. - rely on violent entry and exit rituals - ethical/racial minorities - severe poverty shared by members (low SES) - drug/alcohol abuse Mid-level gangs: - multi-ethnic, or exclusively Aboriginal - different SE backgrounds - made up of unstructured smaller groups or cells (chapters) - relationships with other groups fluid, opportunistic - involved in serious crimes (kidnapping, drugs, etc.) - violence often initiated in response to perceived threat from other groups - members rely on violent entry/exit rituals - frequently sophisticated/disciplined Organized Crime Groups: - rare for teens to be involved - highly structured and hierarchical, modeled after successful companies - flourished over time and are recognized/feared/respected - membership exclusive based on family, race, ethnicity - complex enterprises (by-law, constitutions, etc.) Who is Involved? – concentric circle diagram - wannabees/posers, new recruits, leaders - leadership structure made up of original founder and core members who started gang - wannabees high risk of being victimized at hands of legitimate gang members Gang Wars: Video: - Little Rock  lots of gang related murder (drive by shooting) - guys/girls in gangs, take it very seriously - whites/blacks, all kinds of gangs - parents: cannot happen to my kid… but it does - domestic abuse, want a family - get in by getting beaten/sexed in - get branded with brand - protect territory - get want they want  money, cars, shelter - taught that it is okay to kill - make money though drugs Terms in Video: - G’s  fellow gang members - “gangs give them love/belonging” - “quoted” – initiation ritual, see how hard they are - “get love” – attention from members - “gat” = gun, “straps” = guns - “stacking”  telling story with signs - “jacking”  robing - gang banging  in gang activities - “down for mine”  loyal to gang members - pouring beer  ritual to remember death of gang member - “kick it”  hang out, have fun - “jacked up”  search/questioned by police - “186”  be alert Primary Activities: - hanging out: meeting basic needs - making profits from serious crime - engaging in severe violence: - violence within and between gangs associated with ganging social status and reputation - emphasis on honour, personal integrity, territoriality - issues of self-esteem, gender identity, self-protection Hand Signals and Dress: - represent gangs - tattoos: symbol of time spent in pen; gang identifications, intimidation, having killed rival/gang/family members Recruitment/Exit: - “born in” due to family ties - “jumped in”  enduring beating by gang members - sexed in  rape - “crime in” – three initial tests 1) strikes – doing criminal acts 2) paperwork – criminal record, evidence that you are a Gee 3) jumped/sexed in (bootfucking) - girls is different than boys - exit process just as difficult - bleed out  doing minutes (severe beating) - gang rape  victimization (more so for females) - pregnancy  get social services - death, suicide Legislation: - Bill C-24  3 or more people (CISC), one or more serious offences, direct/indirect material benefit, symbol to represent group, repeat offenders (recidivism), has control over geographical location Female Involvement in Gangs: - few female gangs - higher rate of victimization in childhood/when involved in gang - gang-affiliation, play territory roles: look for police, deal drug, work in sex trade - feel relatively safe from violence - belong to mutually supportive peer groups Biological and Genetic Factors: - key determinate of gang involvement - development problems, learning disabilities, and intellectual limitations, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), brain injuries, predisposition to mental health problems, certain personality traits - estimated 40% of child’s antisocial behaviours maybe related to genetic factors - comprehensive early intervention can help mitigate risk factors of personality traits Psychological factors: - poor mental-health states - low self-esteem & body image - learning disabilities - anti-social behaviours and attitudes - internalizing disorders (eating disorder) - external disorders can compromise children’s healthy development - significantly more likely to be involved in gangs Family Factors: - strong bonds to parents have better mental/physical health and are highly unlikely to join a gangs - child maltreatment and exposure to domestic violence are associated with great likelihood of gang involvement - child maltreatment = major public health epidemic in Canada - leads to impaired physical, emotional, cognitive, social functionary - moderated by positive relationships with adults and residential stability School Factors: - success/bonding, participation in extracurricular activities, low delinquency rate of students at school = key protective factors - structured daytime activities/supports healthy socialization - many gang members spend lots of time outside of school; frequently suspended or expelled, have high rates of absenteeism, frequently drop out Peer-Group Factors: - lead to positive health outcomes include pro-social siblings and positive peer-group membership - association with people who are violent role models result in violent behaviour Community/Neighbourhood Factors: - community disorganization, exposure to violence, racial discrimination - effects of poverty/negative community environments can be overcome with positive family environment/community support, access to quality health/social services, positive school experiences, individual resilience Prevention and Intervention and Suppression Approaches: What doesn’t work? - prevention: approaches that prevent young people from joining gangs - intervention: approaches that address needs of youth once they are involved in gangs - approaches that typically not part of broad continuum of integrated services do not work: - curriculum – based prevention programs (not be a part of gang… because) - traditional detached – worker programs (develop bonds with gang members), servi
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