PS280 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Concurrent Validity, Predictive Validity, Psychophysiology

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14 Aug 2019
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Classification and Diagnosis
Diagnosis: identification of the nature of a person's disease or condition, or a statement of that finding
Diagnostic system: classification system of rules for recognizing + grouping various abnormalities
Assessment: serves as basis for diagnosis, procedure through which info is gathered systematically in
the evaluation of a condition
-interviews w patient or family, medical testings, psychophysiological or psychological testing
Symptoms: pattern of behaviours
Prognosis: future development of this pattern of behaviours
Purpose of classification system:
-the ability to categorize info allows scientists to better identify and understand various phenomena
-to make sense of our surroundings
-provides a description of different mental disorders + vocabulary for communicating them w others
-identify individuals who meet criteria for a particular disorder and to exclude those who do not, used
in research, of which the findings help refine/improve systems
-needed for surveying population health / understanding the prevalence and etiology of problems
Characteristics of strong diagnostic system:
Reliability: must give the same measurement for a given thing every time
Inter-rater reliability: extent to which two clinicians agree on diagnosis of particular patient
Validity: diagnostic category is able to predict behavioural and psychiatric disorders accurately
Concurrent validity: ability to estimate individual's present standing on factors related to the disorder
-academic underachievement is not criteria for schizophrenia but found in most people with it
-criticism of DSM is it sheds little light on non-symptom attributes of people w given diagnosis
Predictive validity: ability of a test to predict the future course of an individual's development
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