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Soils and Vegetation exam prep.docx

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Department
Geography
Course
GEOG 2500
Professor
Nina Hewitt
Semester
Fall

Description
Soils and Vegetation—Midterm Exam Prep. Topic One-Terms Species: a group of individuals that 1) share a common ancestor, 2) share significant amounts of genetic material, 3) can interbreed with each other 4) are usually reproductively isolated from members of other species Plant Population: group of individuals of the same species that live in one location and actively interbreed, includes individuals at different life stages, sapling to adult Plant community: Angiosperms Gymnosperms Flowering Plants Conifers, replaced by angiosperms in productive habitats Emerged in the Cretaceous period Were dominant in the Mesozoic era shrubs, vines, trees, and herbs Trees and shrubs, and cones, ie pine trees, Pinus resinosa Divided into monocots and dicots Outnumber gymnosperms by 20:1 Marginalized in stressful or less productive environments, like tundra Plant environments Abiotic/physical factors are those which are part of the physical environment. They typically occur as gradients across regions of the earth’s surface. They limit species’ distribution when they reach certain levels, and it depends on the species’ evolved physiological response to them. Abiotic factors tend to affect a plant’s tolerance range, which is the growth rate or performance along the gradient of a single physical factor, like pH, moisture, or temperature. Tolerance ranges explain the gradient and range of tolerance. For example, an increase in moisture increases plant growth. At low moisture levels, the plant does not grow, but at high moisture levels, this impairs plant growth. 1) Insolation (Light) -This is the most important factor in plant photosynthesis. Light in the PhAR portion of the electromagnetic spectrum provides photosynthetic energy. PhAR= Photosynthetic active radiation, what plants use to photosynthesize. It is a small portion of the light spectrum. It reflects the most green light, but red and a bit of blue light is important for plants. Note that photooxidation is only occurring in C3 plants, and produces photorespiration where CO2 is released without the production of chemical energy for the plant. The rate of photorespiration increases with increasing temperature and light intensity. C4 plants do not have photorespiration, so have higher rates of photosynthesis at high light intensities and temperatures. The two categories that plants are classified into with espect to their light requirements: a) heliophytes-need full sunlight to grow optimally. They are better equipped to handle large amounts of sunlight. b) sciophytes-grow best in shade, shade-tolerant spp. High light intensities cause photoinhibition for them. *As light intensity increases, photosynthesis increases until it reaches a maximum. Then, it actually goes down after the compensation point. Pg 101 *Max net photosynthesis occurs when light intensities reach 1/3 to 2/3 the strength of full sunlight. *Aquatic plants and algae only need low levels of light, like 5% to photosynthesise. However, at depth there is not enough light, and plants cannot grow high. Shade-tolerant plants are perennials that live over a year. Annuals germinate within a single year. 2) Temperature -It is the second most important environmental component. Plants are poikilotherms and assume the temp of their environment. But, temperature within plants varies. At temperatures below 0C, plants can get discoloration, depressed growth rates, and damage to cells. When ice crystals form inside cells, this is lethal to the cell. Often, during the cold season, plants go dormant, esp deciduous trees. *For plants like conifers, spruce, and firs to escape freezing, they need to chemically alter their liquids. This is known as supercooling, and the plants metabolically synthesize their sugar. *At high temperatures, some plants just cant survive either. They can cause soomatal closure, and inhibit CO2, water, and oxygen exchange. Plants adapt to high temperatures by either losing their leaves or having dimorphic leafing patterns. In hot periods, they have small leaves and cool season have larger leaves. This occurs in SW US and Mexico. Specific examples: Saguaro cactus-very reactive at its northern limit, does well at high temperatures and low moisture. Young saguaro cacti hide under larger shrubs. As the cactus grows, it rises above the shrub. Radiation of heat from the stalk of the large mature cactus prevents freezing. Note that this is a facilitation example,and saguaros do not survive in temperatures of 0C for over 12-24 hrs. Ex 2: Palm family -universally associated with tropics and subtropics, and can never survive in areas where temperatures drop below -10C to -15C -palm trees are very widely distributed plants. Why? Because it can tolerate the subtropics and it gets around well. This wide distribution is due to its ability to disperse. -Most palm species have large seeds. -Palm species are absent from temperate locales. Ex 3: Arctic timberline -The temperature effect on timberline? Black and white spruce are very good at withstanding freezing. However, at any point above 10 to 12 deg C, the plants cannot fix enough carbon. It is too cold for them to be able to fix enough carbon. -They cant eat enough when it gets too cold. What is CAM photosynthesis? Crassulacean acid metabolis is CAM photosynthesis. The plants do not open their stomata, they keep their stomata tightly closed. At night when it is cool and dark, the plants photosynthesize, and take in CO2, store it, convert it to malic acid, and store it in their stem. Then, they close their stomata, the sun comes out, and the sun’s energy converts this malic acid into carbohydrates and energy. They take the CO2 at night and avoid the transpiration, which is the loss of moisture through the pores, and they can CAM idle (keep stomata closed for day and night for weeks during droughts and recycle the CO2 without releasing any moisture during droughts.) Saguaro cacti undergo CAM photosynthesis. 3) Moisture *Water is needed for photosynthesis, cell growth, and cooling. In vascular plants, it is needed for the movement of nutrients. There are three classifications for defining plants by their water demand: xerophytes, mesophytes, hydrophytes. xerophytes-can exist in dry environments mesophytes-need moderately moist conditions hydrophytes-grow in water or wet soils xylem-vascular tissues that conduct water phloem-tissues that transfer nutrients transpiration-the release of water to the atmosphere by plants, depends on humidity, wind conditions, and air temperature Stomata are most commonly found on leaves, but can also occur on the top of leaves, on stems, and flower parts. Water stress occurs when rate of water loss is high relative to absorption through the roots. The three categories that plants use to deal with dry conditions are water stress escapees, avoiders, and tolerators. 1) water stress escapees –Plants of seasonally dry environments survive the dry season as dormant seeds. They just go dormant during the dry season, like desert plants. Example: annual plants in the Sahara may germinate in periods as short as 8 days following rainfall. 3) avoiders-They adapt in different ways, like having a hard and waxy cuticle that decreases moisture loss. Another way
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