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Midterm

KINE 3012 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Alveolar Cells, Alveolar Pressure, Blood Sugar


Department
Kinesiology & Health Science
Course Code
KINE 3012
Professor
Tara Haas
Study Guide
Midterm

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Physiology Midterm 1 Review
January-05-11
8:43 AM
Understand body levels of organization
Recognize components of homeostatic control systems
ATP drives every single cellular process
Glucose + O2 + ADP --> CO2 + H2O + ATP
HOMEOSTASIS
Maintaining a relatively stable internal environment
Temperature
Blood Glucose
Blood Pressure
Since there are so many systems, the one which most affects brain function is given priority
Osicllating around a set point value = steady state
Levels of Regulation
Intracellular
Intercellular
Local
System
Organism
Body Coordinate Functions
Brain receives information (feedback)
Stimulus --> Receptor --> Afferent Pathway --> Intergrating Pathway (Brain) --> Efferent
Pathway --> Effector --> Response ------> Negative Feedback (returning body to normal state)
Hematocrit - regulated value of erythrocytes (RBCs)
Set Point - a range of acceptable values meaning 'relative constancy' - adaptive
Fact that it is adaptive is not always good (ie. Hypertension)
Small fluctuations allowed
Optimal Value - set point you are trying to achieve
Steady Point - normal range of values above/below set point - requires ATP to maintain
Error Signal - deviation from the set point - going away from set point, father away from set point the
bigger the error signal
In order for homeostasis to work, our body needs
Sensors = receptors (nerve endings) * the farther away from set point the closer it is to
activating receptor
Effectors = nerves, hormones
Homeostatic Loop Reflex

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1. What is the variable being maintained relatively constant
2. Where are the receptors detecting the change
3. Where is the integrating centre that collects info and sends out info through efferent pathways
4. What are the effectors and what effect do they have on the variable
Negative Feedback
Signal is detected and response counteracts the initial stimulus
Returns body to the original state *
Most common form of feedback
Shut off system responsible for response
Deviation in controlled variable
(detected by)
Sensor
(informs)
Integrator
(sends instructions to)
Effectors(s)
(brings about)
Compensatory response
(results in)
Controlled variable restored
to normal
(leads to)
Negative feedback to shut
off the system responsible
for the response
Example:
Heat Loss (stimulus) --> Temperature sensitive nerve endings, increase signalling rate (receptors) -->
Afferent pathway (nerve fibres) -->
Integrating Centre (brain) --> Efferent Pathways (nerve fibres) --> Smooth muscle constriction .:
decreased heat loss / skeletal muscle contraction (shivering)
.: increased heat production
Muscle contraction generates heat
By constricting blood vessels in face, hands, feet, etc. you get a reduction in heat loss
Antagonistic Effectors
Improve responsiveness
Temperature
Sweating, vasodilation (release heat)
Shivering, vasoconstriction (produce heat)
Heart Rate
Parasympathetic nerves bring heart rate down (back to normal)
Sympathetic nerves increase heart rate above 100bmp
Blood Glucose
Insulin

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Glucagon
Example:
1. Blood Glucose Regulation
When blood glucose is low, alpha cells in pancreas stimulate them to secrete glucagon
This decreases cell uptake of glucose and increases glucose synthesis
Thus blood glucose increases
Beta cells stimulate production of insulin
2. Rise in blood pressure when stand up
Feedforward
Anticipatory (conscious or subconscious)
Prepares body for anticipating changes
Feedforward and negative feedback compliment each other
Example:
1. Increasing heart rate before starting the actual race. Your brain is pre-planning for the race.
2. Food in stomach induces insulin release --> Blood Glucose increases
3. Salivating in response of smelling pizza
Positive Feedback (Non-Homeostatic)
Response adds to the initial stimulus, strengthens it, keeps trying to exaggerate it
Is not responsible for returning body to original state
Not commonly used in body
Feeds on itself, continually activating itself
A very efficient amplification system but needs something to shut it off
Example:
1. Oxytocin(released in process of birth) --> uterine contractions --> uterine contractions stimulate more
secretion of oxytocin
2. Transcription process that activates its own transcription
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Brings oxygen
Removes carbon dioxide
Regulates pH (hydrogen ion concentration)
Sound production*
First line of defense against infection*
Lung Structure
Low resistance pathway
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