NATS 1670 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Hepatitis B Immune Globulin, Hepatitis B Vaccine, Smallpox Vaccine

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16 Oct 2011
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Blood = cells + plasma
ex. antibodies, serological tests
Cells
ex. B cells
Different Modes of Acquiring Immunity
Acquired immunity (main bubble)
- Leads to PASSIVE which links to NATURAL
· through breast feeding, when baby drinks milk, he gets a lot of antibodies that will protect the babies gastrointestinal
tract from different pathogens, thus if you are breastfeeding, less gastrointestinal infections)
· No memory cells for baby
· Just using antibodies from mother
PASSIVE also links to ARTIFICIAL which links to ANTIBODIES FROM SOMEONE ELSE which links to USED AS A DRUG
- Can be antibodies from another person or animal
- Isolating antibodies from one person, and injecting into a person who needs immediate care
- Animals sometimes have antibodies that humans may not have because they were not supposed to be exposed to that
antigen in the first place
Antibodies
- Used for treatment of cancer or tumours
- Specific type of antibodies can stop lung cancer which are mediated by over activation of receptors
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Bind to target cells of tumour cells which stimulate person’s immune system to attack those cells
Passive immunity is really used as a drug
ACQUIRED IMMUNITY leads to ACTIVE which leads to NATURAL
Every time you get exposure to pathogens and get antibodies through this way
ACTIVE leads to ARTIFICIAL which leads to ACTIVE VACCINATION which leads to ACTIVATING OUR OWN CELLS
16 and 18 are type of strands involved in Cancer
Gatocil has vaccine type 16 and 18, on top of this have two other strands 5, 11 which are more important for
Vaccine that can almost kill 100% of cervical cancer
Best time to give vaccine before sexual activity against HPV
Post Exposure Passive Immunization- bacterial toxins:
Disease
Product
Use
Diphtheria
Specific Ig from horse
Treatment of diphtheria infection. This is
not a prevention tool.
Normally have good immunization to
Diphtheria, but since we are not exposed
to this pathogen as much, we do not need
active immunization antibodies, we need
memory cells so that if pathogen returns
so we can fight disease
But when people choose not to vaccinate
their kids, the diphtheria comes back
Although pathogen is not common, it can
be still found in some communities
Therefore the child (it’s a child’s disease)
so you want to give him/her antibodies to
help fight it
If they already have pathogen, then too
late to vaccinate, just need antibodies
Botulism (If happens in babies,
usually before 3 months old)
Also, the disease can be found
in canned food that was not
properly “canned.
Specific Ig from horse
Treatment of wound and food borne
forms of botulism, infant botulism is
treated with human botulism immune
globulin (Baby BIG) However, also there
can be “cure” in honey but babies aren’t
suppose to be given honey.
Botulism takes place in babies before the
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age of 3 months
Spores of botulism can be found in nature,
can contaminate honey because bee’s for
some reasons conserve those spores and
when collecting honey, there is a bit of
contamination between the both
Babies above the age of 3 months can
cope with the spores of botulism in our
system, but young babies cannot fight the
spores of the Botulanium Bacteria which
germinate
That is why it is not recommended to feed
baby at a younger age with honey
There is a treatment to solve this disease
through horse antibody but there is still a
long time for the baby to recover its
normal functions
Tetanus
Ig from human (Have to make
sure blood is not
contaminated.)
Treatment of tetanus infection
Post Exposure Passive Immunization against Viruses:
Disease
Product
Use
Rabies (using active and
passive immunity.)
Rabies Ig
Past- exposure (administered with rabies
vaccine.) Given after infection instead of
being a prevention tool.
Disease
Product
Use
Vaccinia
Vaccinia Ig
Treatment of progressive vaccinia
infection usually resulting from
smallpox vaccination in immune
that is in compromised individuals
Varicella (chicken pox)
Varicella- zoster Ig
Post-exposure in high risk
individuals
Cytomegalavirus (CMV)
Hyper-immune human Ig
Prevention used most often in
organ transplantation patients
Hepatitis A
Pooled human Ig
Prevention of Hepatitis A infection
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B Ig (HBIG)
Prevention in high-risk infants (
administered with Hepatitis B
vaccine)
Snake and other Reptiles bites
Specific IgG(from horse)
Post exposure treatment
Hypo gamma globulinemia
Pooled human Ig
Prevention of many diseases in
patients with an immune disorder
is characterized by a reduction in
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