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POLS 1000 Midterm: POLS1000ExamQuestion3StudyNotes

Political Science
Course Code
POLS 1000
Martin Breaugh
Study Guide

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POLS 1000 Exam Question 3
Definition of a mixed regime : Combine elements that are considered democratic and some
elements considered aristocratic
Definition of Ambiguity : unclear or double meaning
Manin argues that representative government is a mixed regime we see this through :
elections, venice and
Representative government should be acknowledged as mix of both democratic and
aristocratic elements.
We see this through distinction principle, and benefits of ambiguity
First Paragraph: What he means by this
Representative government is when a few elected individuals are to represent the
society as a whole
The concept of the distinction principle added a non-democratic aspect to the electoral
Distinction principle was implemented by the creators of representative government
Definition: public office holders should economically, socially, and morally be superior to
their electors
We can see this in the early days of representative government where the
non-democratic attributes lies in the restricted aspect of the electoral franchise
Manin analyzes England , France, and America to see how it is restrictive
- England : right to vote was limited to a small # of the population
- France: active & passive - only active was allowed to vote
- America: the State would make their decisions
Demonstrates the limit to suffrage in early representative government - not fully
Paragraph 2: How he comes to this conclusion:
Manin notes on Schmitt's theory saying that - elections include a non democratic aspect
in the sense that they cannot create similarities between rulers and the ruled.
He also interprets Aristotle's writing in The Politics - saying a mixed regime constitution
is “well-mixed” if it can be seen as either democratic or aristocratic non one or the other.
This is because democrats and oligarchs are able to find what they are looking for and
support the constitution.
E.G. United states’ representative government
Paragraph 3 : Benefits of ambiguity
Elections indeed include aristocratic and inegalitarian aspects there are also democratic
and egalitarian
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