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[POLS 1000] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 25 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLS 1000
Professor
Martin Breaugh
Study Guide
Final

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York
POLS 1000
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Friday, September 23
- We study different types of authorities in order to distinguish between how authority is
used in conjugation with consent and legitimacy. There is a way in which three terms
are connected.
- Big question that motivates political question: how is authority related to consent and
legitimacy, how is it established?
- Authority can be stabilised in charismatic way, traditional and legal- rational way
- There is an issues with establishment of legal-rational authority. Legal rational authority
is seen to lay in a core of democratic authority. The connection is made here between
retinal and democratic authority is that people consent to be governed because they
view the rules and procedures of democracy as legitimate.
- People are consenting to b governed under democratic rules because they view them to
be legitimate. (freedom of assembly and speech etc.)
- People are not consenting because the leader has divine characteristic or they thin the
leader was chosen from a particular family or select group. They support government
because of the fact that it has followed rules and procedures of democracy.
- As democracy (legal democracy is dominant) developed, (starting from French
revolution/and continuing from 18th century) as the form of political authority that
people find acceptable.
- People are consenting to be governed.
Official Version of Democracy (pg.7)
- Official version of democracy focuses on a particular form of administration in which
the people (illustrating their background view on it/term people is politically charger
because the whole term of people is a political construction/changes over time) elect
representatives who have specific decision-making power.
- Who consents to being government is politically constructive? (ex, who is defined as
people).
- Who is allowed to vote and who is a citizen?
- The people are constantly referred (trump/ the will of the people + try to convince that
they represent people)
- Citizenship: permanent resident who is a full member of the political society with
certain duties and rights.
- Second question: is democracy only limited to voting for representatives or accepting
that someone else will rule on their behalf?
- This approach is called official democracy
Democracy from Below (p.12)
- People push for democracy and continues to lead to major forms of struggle.
- Democracy from below is defined as people exercise people themselves rather than
simple participating in the choice of who will govern over them.
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- Participation in active democratic decision making from this perspective is a richer and
deeper form of democracy which is argued also allows and supports greater equality in
society. There is whole way in which this different view of democracy from below
perspective is articulated with motion of great equality. Purpose behind occupied
protest was against one percent who dominated wealth and economic decision making
against 99 percent.
- Richer: associated with left ideology.
- Consent of being governed as a way of practicing democracy is marked by deep
inequalities.
- Who can run for office? Is it unrealistic? Is it possible to have society with democracy?
- Major struggles over the inclusivity of political arrangements (who has more
power/authority)
- There are number of different ways in which political order is defined:
- State is an independent, self governing political community whose governing
institutions have the capability to make rules:
- 1st dimension: independent, self-governing community (this political community is not
dependable on the other community or coercive power for decision making)
- There are many cases in which communities are not self governed
- Example: United Nations international organizations with various representatives, it has
no self independent self governed power.
- Hierchy of sovereignty: not all nations are equal. States (some) have higher rate of
sovereignty.
- UN security council which is top body of the UN that can authorize military actions and
is not subjected by any vitos.
- Five permanent member: US, Russia, China, France and UK.
- They are given exclusive authority. They are given hearachy of geo political strength.
- There are degrees of sovereignty depending on geo political situation.
- Nation a group of people who share a sense of common identity and who typically
believe they should be self-governing within their homeland.
- Sense of common identity and sense that they should be self governed (self governing
refers to sovereignty)
- Authority that comes out of nation is refers to a nation state
- Nation state a sovereign state based on people living in a country which share a sense of
common identity as member of a particular nations. (ex, kurds, Quebec)
- Quebec is currently a province but does not have its central government, and has an
independence movement which wants to have its own nation state.
- Claim for nation state status can often lead to military conflict.
Nationalism: how national identities are formed?
o Nationalism: the idea that nation-state is the best for of political community, that a
nation should have its own self governing state and that the interests, culture and
values of the nation should be promoted.
o Nations state is the best form of political community. The nation state is the
ultimate goal of political community.
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