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Test Four Vocabulary.docx

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PSYC 1010
Heather Jenkin

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TEST FOUR: TEXTBOOK VOCABULARY + DEFINITIONS MODULE 29 Intelligence: mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems and use knowledge to adapt to new situations Intelligence test: a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores General intelligence: a factor that underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test Factor analysis: a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test; it is used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person's total score Savant syndrome: a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill Creativity: the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas Emotional intelligence: the ability to perceive, understand, manage and use emotions MODULE 30 Mental age: a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; it is the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance Stanford-Binet: the widely used American revision of Binet's original intelligence test Intelligence quotient: the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100 Achievement test: a test designed to assess what a person has learned Aptitude test: a test designed to predict a person's future performance Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS): the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance subtests Standardization: defining meaningful scored by comparison with the performance of a pretested group Normal curve: the symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes; most scores are near the average and fewer are near the extremes Reliability: the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, or on retesting Validity: the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to Content validity: the extent to which a test samples the behaviour that is of interest Predictive validity: the success with which a test predicts the behaviour it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behaviour Cohort: a group of people from a given time period Crystallized intelligence: our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; increases with age Fluid intelligence: our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; decreases with age Intellectual disability: a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life Down syndrome: a condition of mild to severe intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 MODULE 31 Heritability: the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes Stereotype threat: a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype MODULE 32 Motivation: a need or desire that energizes and directs behaviour Instinct: a complex behaviour that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned Drive-reduction theory: the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy the need Homeostasis: a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; regulating your body Incentive: a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behaviour Hierarchy of needs: Maslow's pyramid of human needs; the bottom has the physiological needs which must be satisfied first before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active Glucose: the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues; when its level is low, we feel hungry Set point: the point at which an individual's weight is supposedly set; when weight goes up or down, the body will try to restore the old weight Basal metabolic rate: the body's resting rate of energy expenditure MODULE 33 Sexual response cycle: the four stages of sexual responding; excitement, plateau, orgasm and resolution Refractory period: a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm Sexual disorder: a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning Estrogens: sex hormones secreted in greater amounts by females and contributes to female sex characteristics Testosterone: the most important of the male sex hormones; females also have it but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty Sexual orientation: an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual) or the other sex (heterosexual) MODULE 34 Flow: a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills Industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology: the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behaviour in workplaces Personnel psychology: a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal and development Organizational psychology: a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change Human factors psychology: a subfield of I/O psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use Structured interviews: interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants and rate them on established scales Achievement motivation: a desire for significant accomplishment, mastery of skills or ideas, and attaining a high standard and a sense of control Grit: passionate dedication to an ambitious, long-term goal Task leadership: goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals Social leadership: group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support MODULE 40 Personality: an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting Psychodynamic theories: view personality with a focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experiences Free association: a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing Psychoanalysis: Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; it is used in treating psychological disorders Unconscious: a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories; it is also information processing of which we are unaware Id: a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy the basic sexual and aggressive drives; it operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification Ego: the largely conscious 'executive' part of personality that mediates among the demands of the id, superego and reality; it operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain Superego: the part of personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement and for future aspirations Psychosexual stages: the childhood stages of development during which the id's pleasure- seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones; stages are oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital Oedipus complex: a boy's sexual desires towards his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father Identification: the process by which children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos; helps to figure out gender identity Fixation: a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unr
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