EVOLUTION OF PSYCHOLOGY
- rooted from philosophy + physiology
- Wilhelm Wundt -> father
-he argued that psychology should be the scientific study of consciousness
-he set up the first research lab in Germany in 1879.
- Psychology: is the study of behaviour and the physiological and cognitive process that underlie it
-found in 1879
The Battle of the “Schools”
a. structuralism : Edward Titchener
- psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related
- identify and examine components of conscious experience (i.e. sensations, images, feelings)
- Structuralism was mostly concerned with sensation and perception in vision, hearing and touch
- depended on introspection -> a systematic self-observation of one's own conscious experience
b. functionalism : William James
- investigate the function or purpose of consciousness rather than structure
- argues structuralists missed the real nature of conscious experience
- influenced by Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection
Natural Selection: heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproduction advantage are more likely to survive and pass
on their characteristics to next generations and come to be “selected” over time rather than the organisms who do not have the
-functionalism had more impact on psychology
c. behaviourism : John Watson
- scientific psychology should only study observable behaviour
- abandons the study of consciousness and solely focus on observable behaviour
- dismiss importance of genetic inheritance while arguing traits are shaped by experience
- psychology becomes the science of behaviour
- behaviour refers to any observable (overt) response or activity by an organism
-the behaviorists emphasized environment over heredity and began to explore stimulus-response
relationship, using lab animals as subjects.
-A stimulus is anything that can trigger a physical or behavioural change. The plural of stimulus is stimuli.
Examples of stimuli include irritants, sights, sounds, heat, cold, smells, or other sensations.
e. Radical behaviourism: B.F Skinner
-Like Watson, he believed that environmental factors affected behaviour and not physiological factors.
- His principal was that organisms tend to repeat responses with positive outcomes + they tend to not repeat these that lead to
- declares all behaviour is governed by stimuli
- People are controlled by their environment = free will is an illusion
f. humanism: Carl Rogers and Maslow -Finding both behaviorism and psychoanalysis unsatisfactory, humanism evolved.
-led by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
-Humanism emphasizes humans’ freedom and potential for personal growth.
-So basically, Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers said that human behaviour is unique and you cannot
compare it with animals. Behaviourism -> preoccupation with the study of animal
-They also said that humans have freedom and they have the potential to grow. psychoanalytic -> dominated by primitive sexual