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PSYC 1010 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Classical Conditioning, Learning, Observational Learning

Course Code
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis
Study Guide

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Chapter 7
Learning: The process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information and behaviours
Associative learning: Leaning that certain events occur together. The events may be two
different stimuli, such as in classical conditioning, or a response and its consequence, such
as in operant conditioning
Stimuli: any event or situation that evokes a response
Cognitive learning: The gaining of mental information, whether by observing events, by
watching others or through different forms of communication (oral, reading, writing)
Jonh Locke, David Hume both agreed with Aristotle’s conclusion of how we learn by
association. Our minds naturally connect events that occur in a sequence.
Learn associations are why we have certain habits- certain behaviours become associated with
certain situations.
ie. Situation: Movie Theatre  Habit: Eating popcorn
Behaviorism: The view that psychology should be an objective science (science that looks at
all viewpoints that studies behavior without reference to mental processes.
(Most psychologist agree with only the objective part today)
Neutral Stimuli: A stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning (becomes the C.S
later )
Acquisition: In classical conditioning, the initial stage, where you take a neutral stimulus and
make it into the an conditioned stimulus
In operant conditioning, acquisition is the strengthening of a reinforced response
Classical conditioning Applications:
Drugs + Food: Chemo + food = hatred for the food you ate because it reminds you of chemo
Little Albert: Watson: Son + mouse = happy, Son + gong = scared  conditioned learning
therefore, mouse = gong = scared ; stimulus generalization also happened.
Anything that looked like the mouse = same conditioned response (scared)
Classical conditioning is Palov
Operant conditioning is Skinner
Operant Conditioning: A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a
reinforcer (Sr+) or diminished if followed by punisher
Law of effect: Thorndlike’s principle that behaviours followed by a favorable consequence
make the behaviours more likely to happen again
Behaviours followed by an unfavorable consequence make the behaviors less likely to
happen again
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