[GOVT-105 FA2] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (23 pages long)

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GOVT-105 FA2
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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GOVT- 105 Lecture Note #1 Plato’s Apology
How can a philosopher with a clear view of justice engage in a discussion about it without
getting killed?
Socratic irony: saying something that seems orthodox to appeal to different groups but is not/
using arguments that go over the heads of dogmatists
Platonic dialogues
Conversation between Socrates and others
Socrates is not just a mouthpiece for Plato; he says different things to different people
depending on context
Question being addressed is usually subordinate to a larger question which is a
part of the larger issue
Who he is talking to
In Apology, categories of audience are Athenians, the judges, accusers
(Meletus)
First sentences of a dialogue are often important
Socrates distinguishes between persuasive speech and true speech
If lies are more persuasive than truth then that implies that people are more interested in
having biases concerned than in the truth
Says that he is not a clever speaker but he’s probably lying
Two sets of accusers
Public opinion
Unidentified “they”, fathers who are challenged by their sons
Investigating things under the earth/in the heavens
Naturalistic account of lightning/ the sun refutes the gods and is heresy
Making weak speech stronger
Using rhetorical skills
Two charges together are a charge of impiety
Fear that the gods will punish the city b/c of Socrates
The dialogue is a conflict between the search for truth and dogmatism
New charges
Corrupting the young
Introducing new gods/forsaking old ones
Socrates claims that there is a daimon/god that speaks only to him and turns him away from
wrong decisions
Public opinion is politically strong and rationally weak
The Pythia says there are none wiser than Socrates
Could mean either Socrates is the wisest or that everyone is equally unwise
Socrates takes it to mean that he is the wisest but also doubts the oracle
Socrates talks to politicians, poets, and craftsmen and finds three different types of wisdom/lack
of it
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Politicians → justice
Poets → human life, virtue, vice, the gods
Craftsmen → know their trade but also falsely believe that they are wise in other things
Socrates forces Meletus into a corner after Meletus says that Socrates does not believe in any
gods
In refuting the charge of atheism he inadvertently embraces the heterodoxy charge
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