Study Guide for Test 5
Covers: Chapter 17 Flours, 19 Quick Breads, 20 Yeast Breads and 23 Cakes
1. What are the methods to the different mixing techniques? (
b. Muffin Method: Liquid and dry mixed separately
c. Single –Stage: all ingredients at once
d. Pastry Blend: fat mixed with flour rather than sugar
e. Biscuit Method: sift dry, combine wet, stir together briefly, strokes
f. Conventional-Sponge: dry ingredients sifted, fat and sugar are
creamed to light foam (Modified: yokes added, but whites whipped
to foam and folded in) (sponge: egg white mixed with part of sugar
to make a meringue, folded in)
2. What is the role of sugar in baked goods? Yeast breads?
a. Adds sweetness, increases volume by feeding yeast, increases
moistness and tenderness and color
3. What is the difference between hard and soft wheat?
a. Soft wheat has lowest protein, highest starch (pastry and cake
b. Hard winter wheat has highest protein, lowest starch (bread flour
and pasta flour)
4. What is gluten? Which proteins make up gluten?
a. Gluten is a protein structure made up of gliadins (weak bonds) and
glutenins (strong bonds) 5. What are some of the characteristics of gluten as it relates to making
yeast bread? (e.g. elasticity, relaxation)
a. Plasticity (changes shape with pressure), elasticity (moves back to
original shape), relaxation (can take other shapes)
6. How are quick breads leavened?
a. Leavened during baking by air or steam and Co2
7. Which flours contain more protein? Winter – Bread flower
8. What is the difference between a batter and dough?
a. Ratio of liquid to flour
9. What happens if you over knead or under knead your breads?
10.What is the difference between crepes, pancakes and waffles?
a. Waffles have more fat than pancakes, crepes more liquid
11.What are the different methods of mixing yeast