Exam 4 Study Guide.docx

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Arizona State University
Anthropology (Science and Mathematics)
ASM 275
Christopher Stojanowski

ASM 275: ForensicAnthropology Exam 4 Study Guide What are positive identification and individuation? • Final phase of forensic analysis • Identify with high prob the exact identity of ind. • Begin w/ info on sex, age, stature, ancestry • Add other info gleaned from skeleton Pathology: Know the three ways pathology affects bone and the terms lytic, osteoclastic, and osteoblastic Paleopathology: the study of ancient disease in skeletal remains Also focuses on mummified remains • Pathology affects bone in 3 ways: o Excess osteoclastic activity produces lytic lesions  Osteoclasts: Bone cells responsible for removal of bone from body  Lytic lesion on distal end of humerus, cavitation in joint surface, holes are pores due to exposure of underlying trabecular bone o Excess osteoblastic activity produces proliferate lesions  Osteoblasts: create new bone  Maxillary sinusitis- proliferative: little additions of bones that look like spider webs; body responded to disease by activating osteoblasts and creating new bone  Woven bone to some sort of systemic infection | excess piece of bone, may be traumatic in origin o Abnormalities of shape produces by both processes What is it? How is it useful to forensic anthropologists? • Can be confused with perimortem trauma (fusion defects-bones don’t fuse correctly in adulthood) • Can be confused with postmortem taphonomic alterations • Can provide information on life course experience of individual- healthy of unhealthy life? • Can provide info on socio-economic status (poor health) based on patterning of disease • Last 2 (disease pathology) can lead to positive identification Pathological conditions- disease processes that affect bone (MOST DO NOT!) • Past patterns of trauma= occupations, social economic status, work-related injuries • Diet and health conditions- generalized stress level that could be related to socio economic status • Congenital disease malformations- born with them, should be medically documented, ID and individuation • Infectious diseases (communicably diseases that you catch from contact with others)- health, medical history • Rare bone diseases- geographic origin *What can past patterns of trauma tell us about the individual? • Shows occupational, social economic status, work related injuries • Osteoarthritis: degenerative joint disease o Results from break down of joint capsule do to overuse, can be linked to certain types of activities o 3 skeletal manifestations  lipping of joint surface (osteophytes, B, right pic: osteophytes on thoratic vertebrae= back arthritis)  porosity of joint surface (  eburnation, polishing of joint surface: results from bone on bone contact • • porosity on proximal radius (elbow), L▯R increasing damage • Patella with severe eburnation and pitting due to breakdown of knee joint, porosity • Extreme case of osteoarthritis in shoulder: left scapula, right humerus, whole joint flattened and destroyed *What can diet and health conditions tell us? Generalized stress and likely socio-economic status of decedent Stress and Health Conditions • Stress: any physiological disruption resulting from poor environmental circumstances o Env’tal could be dietary, disease based, emotional, physiological o Body’s response depends on cultural buffers, individual resilience o Takes a toll on human skeleton as it grows and remodels; individuals more socioeconomically disadvantages are smaller and shorted overall than affluent children, more prone to stress • Dental Indicators of Stress: Linear Enamel Hypoplasias o Teeth do not grow after done forming o LEHs give indication of time and duration of a given stress during childhood, first 6-7 years o Can be caused by antibiotics, poor nourishment, other stress o How it works  Enamel formed by cells called ameloblasts, start producing enamel at dark line/arrow in picure • Curvy path is how enamel formed from inside to outside of tooth •  Ameloblasts do not secrete constant rate when stressed  Result is ripple or nick in enamel visible on tooth’s surface   3 episodes, evenly spaced might suggest seasonal deprivation of sorts  larger, may suggest something about how long the event was • Harris Lines- Long Bones o Similar to LEHs in that they are indicators of similar stresses (growth stalled or stopped for some period of time). BUT will eventually be remodeled and obliterated- impossible in teeth o Evident as opaque line on xray, indicating area of increased bone density o FormAFTER individual has recovered from stress event (hence density) o Downside: require xray, eventually remodeled and possibly won’t see them down the line o Plus side: lets you look at stress over entire period of growth/teenage years not just up to 5-7 o • TheAnemias o Caused by iron deficiencies due to poor diet, parasitic infection, heart disease, specific ailments like Sickle-Cell anemia o Leave bone with pitted, porous, coral-like appearance, or with “pinpricked” look o Occur in specific locations  Cribra orbitalia: upper portion of orbits • • Vermiculated bone- worm tracks • • Severe diploic expansion through orbital ceiling, cortical bone, severe anemia •  Porotic hyperostosis: on cranial vault • Iron deficiency anemia • minor • more severe • very severe, contour of skull affected  Parasitic load and dietary deficiency causes anemia • Hookworms from ingestion, schistosoma from swimming in infected waters • • Schistosoma leads to: bloating from reproduction of parasite, malnourished o Causes  Lack of iron causes cell shape to distort  These cells eliminated and replaced  Body’s natural response to accelerated loss of cells and low iron levels is increased RBC production  Diploe of skull rise to occasion of production more RBCs. Ultimately, begin to eat away at cortical bone as they increase in width to create more active surface area (diploe expands)  Proliferative lesions • Other dietary or metabolic disturbances o Scurvy- vitamin C def.: pattern on bone similar to porotic hyperostosis o Rickets- vitamin D def.: results in malformation and extreme curvature of bones  *What can congenital disease malformations tell us? • Diseases you’re born with, can be linked to existing medical records (useful for forensic analysis) and create more correct profile o Leads to ID and individuation • Craniosynostosis: premature closure of one or more cranial sutures o Left shows anterior fontanel (soft spot) o o Scaphocephaly- premature closure of sagittal suture of skull vault (left)= long and narrow head  o Plagiocephaly and Brachycephaly: extent of malformation determined by which sutures close prematurely  • Spina Bifida: when fusion that should happen DOESN’T happen o Spinal cord exposed because bone doesn’t form complete ring around it, doesn’t fuse  *What can infections diseases tell us? • Tell us health, medical history • 3 types of infectious diseases that have specific correlates in human skeleton o Tuberculosis- mycobacterium tuberculosis  Highly contagious, spread through air  Leads to damage of certain segments of body, most often mid thoracic/ mid back region: Pott’s disease • Causes destruction of vertebral bodies▯hunchback   Also affects face: widens nose, destroys boney area of upper lip  o Leprosy- mycobacterium leprae  Less contagious, direct contact  Only 5% of affected individuals show skeletal features  Destroys face and hard palate: nose widened as bone is destroyed in surrounding region, perforation of hard palate; in severe cases, face totally destroyed and no differentiation between nose and mouth soft tissue   Also significantly affects the hands, feet: lesions in soft tissue, hourglass like shape in bones and bone ends destroyed   Not very common in US anymore, but is more so in other parts of world: leads to identification of where ind is from  o Treponemal infections (including venereal syphilis)  Four diseases caused by the same species: treponema pallidum, kinda controversial  Found in different parts of world, different causes, target different portions of pop • Endemic syphilis/Bejel o T. pallidum endemicum o Young children, mouth-mouth o Arid • Yaws o T. pallidum pertenue o Young children, skin contact o Tropics • Pinta o T. pallidum pertenue o Young children, skin contact o Tropics • Veneral syphilis: STI o T. pallidum pallidum o Adults o Sexual contact  Soft tissue site of infection indicated by canker, shocker   Advanced cases lead to severe changes in cranial vault (most severe takes decades), damage to phase  Causes neurological damage   Facial gangosa: severe damage to phase, nose connected to completely gone upper lip, nose open to mouth •   • Nose widened, connects to orbits bone and soft tissue gone: large open hole in face *What can neoplasms tell us? *What can rare bone diseases tell us? • Show geographic origin of decedent • Coccidioidomycosis: Valley Fever o Az, Ca, Northern Mexico o Caused by inhalation of fungal spores found in soil o Bone changes rare but similar to TB o  inflamed balloon like appearance to bone, combined with focal lytic lesions  hazy area on xray indicates soft tissue damage, white part shows bone damage as well Know the examples of each of the above that we went over in class! Be familiar with the following terms: anemia cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH), Harris lines, arthritis, tuberculosis, leprosy, syphilis (treponemal infections). Non-specific stress markers- what are they and what do they tell us? What is "stress"? Occupational Stress Markers *Know what they are and why they are useful to forensic anthropologists. • Link behavior to signature on skeleton • Wolf’s law says bone will be taken away from places where it’s not needed and put where it is. Can have atrophy of muscle as result (broken bones- when in cast, muscle will atrophy) o Muscle attachment sites can decrease in size from muscle atrophy o Evidence of focused concentrated use of certain body segments  Enlarged areas of muscle attachment  Focal regions of erosion: caused by stress  Soft tissue ossification: connective tissue linking bone and muscle starts to turn to bone itself from stress related injury o If deltoid muscle is larger, area of attachment will be larger and rougher  *Know the four "classes" of the markers 1) Modifications to areas of muscle insertion: areas of bone where muscles attaches, indicated by roughened segments • changes in muscle attachment sites (MAS) • hypertrophy (MAS gets bigger) and osteolysis (degreades, breakdown, becomes more irregular) of muscle attachment site o overuse, reliance on that muscle group o humerus; red lines show ridges o muscle overuse before the bone can respond: deterioration on MAS • mechanical loading builds bone, but also can cause damage and breakdown • asymmetry between left,right sides and location within body key to inferring behaviors that caused changes • Lesions of Insertion Sites (“quite dubious” o 2) osteophytosis : found on joints • joints overuses, joint cavity will break down- osteoarthritis • osteophytosis represent breakdown of joint due to overuse • lipping of bone (little segments of bone added), usually around rim of joint o humerus o ulna, problem in elbow (incorrectly set broken arm▯elbow arthritis) 3) discrete markers – squatting facets, dental attrition, habitual pipe-smoking, etc • facets, grooves, deformations found on specific portions of skeleton associated with specific repeated activity • Squatting facet: extra joint surface on front portion of distal end of tibia (top) and tallus interior face (bottom, on distal end of tibia) o o • Modern Examples o Clinical DentalAttrition- granite worker: lots of dust in air that wears down teeth just through inhalation of granite particles  o Occlusal surface grooves- grooves in front teeth: repeated process of pulling string through teeth to cut it etc: wear facet in weavers  4) stress fractures • minor, but painful fractures • caused from repeated use (overloading and stressing bone) rather than traumatic event o • Clay shoveler’s fracture: stress in lower portion of neck/upper back o *How accurate are these methods? • Pretty dubious • Markers are very subtle and light • Need entire body to get accurate description (is upper body muscular? Asymmetry?) • Chart is a bit extreme Radiography –how can it be used to ID individuals? *Comparison of ante-mortem records • Obv, body with 16 toes is easy to match, or 6 fingers • Idea is to compare antemortem radiographs with features of bone • Needle in haystack approach, can be all sort of odd idiosyncratic variations in body; “kinda luck into it” • Some areas better than others- frontal sinus o Can be seen if head xray ever done o o Frontal sinus is very distinct among idividuals o Has been used in kinship analysis, shape of sinus “runs” in families o Sort of like a fingerprint, only visible radiographically • midline septum- varies in length, curvature • left and right cels (cloud puff like shapes)- differ in size and shape • scalloping of cels • connections with ethmoid sinuses • Problems: o must have antemortem x-ray o must replicate angle of x-ray o replicability questionable o accuracy questionable * Looking for odd variants or variation in frontal sinus pattern; difficulties involved in looking at the frontal sinus Forensic Odontology: Know what it is and the two general uses of it • Theory: no two mouths are alike (even identical twins are different), teeth leave recognizable marks in bone o Different diets, injuries, etc • 2 General uses: o Comparative morphology (shape) for personal identification  Approach that views variation in tooth shape  Link up with medical records  Look at all the little cusps and crenulations, different root lengths, extensions of enamel, cavities, plaque, bridges  Pattern of restoration is even better for ID • Compare cavity patterns, what each looks like in cross section form x-ray (the filling) • Drilling produces idiosyncratic cavity walls- easy to match with x-ray of teeth • More work you have done, easier the ID • Can be just as good as DNA, which is similarly limited • Abscess abscess and errant tooth • Panoramic x-ray with cavities and impacted tooth (premolar, white) and missing molar (red, other molar shifted) • Very short roots, genetic, useful for identification  ATYPICAL TEETHARE BETTER- the more odd the mouth, the more unlikely to find a match randomly • Shoveling and double shoveling- lip side of tooth (not tongue side), found in native american andAsian pops • Incisor Talon Cusp • Twinned incisors- partially separated • Premolar odontome- little finger like enamel projection • Other odd projections parastyle • Differences in lower molar cusp number • Enamel extensions- enamel that extends down below gum line • Enamel pearl- separate little blob of enamel on root • Differences in root shape • o Bite mark analysis for identification of culprit *Matching of dental records to remains (dental anatomy and pathology—how is this used in personal identification? • Compare morphology of teeth, jaws, dental pathology from crime victim to hypothesized victim • Begin with skeletonized remains • Generate some profile based on sage, sex, ancestry, stature, etc • Compare to missing persons list to generate potential candidates • Obtain antemortem dental xrays • Compare features • What to record o Inventory of present, absent teeth o Dental restorations o Pathological conditions (Cavities, breaks in teeth, abscess) o Abnormalities )short roots, long roots, extra teeth, retained baby teeth) o Malocclusions- missing teeth, twisted, canted teeth o X-rays- contours of amalgums, etc *Bite mark analysis—what is it? • An art and a science, fairly specialized • Used to identify assailant if victim was bitten, or some bite mark left at crime scene; identify victim as well • Leaving bite marks on victim is obviously personal • Indicative of mindset of assailant- psychologically compromised, serial killer, etc • Places to find bite marks o Human skin o Foods: apples, cheese, gum o Duct tape o Pencils o Steering wheels, bullet casings • Can take cast of bite mark, compare to suspect’s teeth (cusps, ridges, tooth shape, other morphology) • Different types of bite marks o Hemorrhage- small bleeding spot o Contusion- ruptured blood vessel, bruise o Laceration- punctured or torn skin o Incision- neat puncture of skin o Avulsion- removal of skin o Artifact- bitten off piece of body • What to examine o Distance from canine to canine o Shape of mouth arch o Evidence of tooth out of alignment o Teeth width and thickness, spacing between them o Missing teeth o Curves of biting edges on ind teeth o Unique dentistry o Wear patters such as chips, grinding -Ted Bundy • Bite analysis used for conviction • Bit one of victims • Escaped prison twice, went to florida and killed 2 girls at chi omega sorority house o One of killed girls had 2 bite marks on left butt cheek- left bruises, bruises change color!!! o 2 different bites superimposed o 2 different renderings of bundy’s teeth o • Wax bite of Bundy’s teeth o Made positive impression, white arrows show central incisors out of place and both canines on sides to measure distance between them o Teeth aligned with bite mark on victim o -Problems: makes testimony more difficult • Skin behaves differently when put under pressure. How does this affect bite mark seen? • How unique are teeth given resolution of bruising?? How out of alignment does a tooth need to be for it to appear as such in bite mark? • How does jaw movement, degree of violence affect bite mark’s appearance? • Bite marks are mainly bruises, how do these change with time? • Bite marks differ in living and deceased • In recent year bite mark analysis has come under scrutiny because of this Anatomical variants: *What can they provide information on? *How are they forensically useful? *Know examples (eg metopic suture, extra-sutural bones in cranium, extra digits Intentional Cultural Modification *How is this forensically useful? *Know examples (foot binding, corset training, artificial cranial deformat
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