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BIO 130 Midterm: BIO 130 Study Guide for Exam 2

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Arizona State University
BIO 130
Susannah Sandrin

Climate: Cold Dry ECOLOGY 40 to 65oF and 6 10 inches of rain Coniferous Forest grow in midlatitude, or regions with cold moist Plants: lichens, mosses, sedges, grasses winters and warm dry Animals: caribou, walrus, polar bear summers temp ranges from 40 to 68 degrees F (5060 degrees Permafrost permanently frozen ground. Prohibits tree growth latitude) because their roots cannot penetrate the soil Location in Canada, Europe, Asia, USA Tundra biome: has grasses, clover, and other small plants that grow 300900 mm of rain per year (1235 inches) above the permafrost Plants: coniferous trees such as spruces, pines, and rs that produce >>> Increased latitude from the equator and sea level: Rain Forest > Deciduous Forest > Coniferous Forest > Tundra cones and needles, with some of the needles remaining on the tree lall year long >>> Microclimate: specialized conditions in a Soil is acidic w few nutrients. small area of the biome Animals: Bears, wolf, Eagle, salamander Example: creek (riparian area) in desert Other factors in biome variability Temperate Deciduous Forest are locates in midlatitude areas which means they are found Different soil types different vegetation between polar and tropic area. Slope of land Climate is moderate Average annual temp is 10 degrees C, 20 Shadowed from sun, or facing sun? >>> Ecosystems experiencing a disturbance 85 degrees F. Eastern United States, Canada, Europe, China, Japan (wildre, pollution, clearing of land) can return to previous conditions, 7501500 mm of rain per year (3060 inches) depending on their resilience Plants: Broadleaf trees such as oaks, maples, beeches, shrubs, Through ecological succession Primary succession: moss grows on bare mountain laurel, azaleas, perennial herbs, and mosses rock surface to generate soil development Secondary succession: Forest endures 4 seasons, which is why the leave change colors, trees grasses grow, loose their leaves in followed by pines and then hardwoods (in deciduous forest) Animals return once habitats begin to grow back preparation for the winter along with thick bark Soil is fertile with good mix of organic material and mineral. >>> Trophic Categories Animals: squirrel, rabbit, deer, sparrow Autotrophs: produce organic material from inorganic constituents Desert through the use of an external energy source Also referred to as producers is the driest of all of the binomes receives less than 1 foot of rain per year between 1535 Green plants, some singlecelled organisms and bacteria degrees latitude, 100 degrees F average temp, dry and hot climate. Heterotrophs: must consume organic material to obtain energy Mojave, Sonoran, Chihiuaua, and Great Basin (North America) Sahara Consumers: eat plants or prey Decomposers: scavengers, detritus feeders, chemical decomposers (Africa), Negev (Middle East), and Gobi (Asia) eat dead organic material About 250 mm of rain per year (10 inches) >>> Producers Most producers are green plantsalgae Animals: camels, rattlesnakes, jackrabbits Chlorophyll: a green pigment that captures light energy Desert biome: hot deserts have species adapted to survive the heat and low Range in size from microscopic bacteria to gigantic trees water availability Every major ecosystem has producers Chemosynthesis: some bacteria use energy in inorganic chemicals to Plants: Cacti, small bushes, short grass, plants that can endure the dry form organic matter from CO2 and water climate Soil is sandy Primary production: production of organic matter through Grassland photosynthesis and growth of producers >>> Consumers generally are open and continuous, often located between temperate Organisms feed on organic matter for energy forests and deserts at subtropical levels. Animals, fungi (mushrooms, mold, etc.), most bacteria Range in size Often converted to farmland. from plankton to blue whales Divided into subgroups according to their food source Found on every continent except Antarctica, Great Plains of North Primary consumers (herbivores): feed on producers Secondary America, the pampas of South America, the veldt of South Africa, tge steppes of Central Eurasia and surrounding deserts in Australia. consumers: feed on primary consumers Third (tertiary), fourth Climate: moderate temp and moisture, 5 to 85 Degrees F (quaternary), or higher levels Carnivores: secondary or higherorder meat eaters About 500900 mm of rain per year (2035 inches) Omnivores: feed on both plants and animals Plants: Prairie clovers, wheat sod grass. Some trees near water source Soil: is nutrient rich, good farmland 6090 of food goes to energy for heatmobility, Animals: kestrel, buffalo, zebra, cheetah 1040 goes to tissue >>> Energy Flow and Trophic Levels Rainforests 10 net energy passed to next level, remaining energy is lost as heat. Climate: warm and wet 68 75 oF and 6.5 33 feet of rain >>> What plants use glucose for Plants: vines, orchids, ferns, palm trees Animals: macaw, sloth, Create larger biomolecules in plant that create the stems, leaves, roots, owers... spider monkey. Greatest diversity and productivity Ex: proteins, carbohydrates Shrubland Climate: dry with range of temperatures Store energy for later 50 oF average and 8 39 inches of rain Break down glucose (through cell respiration) for energy for growth and maintenance Plants: sage, rosemary, thyme, shrubs >>> Cellular Respiration Animals: owls, foxes, lizards, prairie dogs high risk of re re induced germination Consumers break down organic molecules (such as glucose) to provide Tundra energy for cell
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