In-Class Writing Assignment.doc

17 Pages

Cultural Geography
Course Code
GCU 114
Daniel Hume

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In-Class Essay Analyze similarities and differences for the Industrial Revolution in Europe and Russia from 1700 to 1900. Thesis: Between 1700 and 1900 Russian and Western European industrialization had different types of leaders and were different in their extents, but both exploited low class laborers. Outline: 1. While Russian Industrialization was largely led by the government under the tsar, industrialization in Western Europe was brought around by entrepreneurs. a. After the Crimean War, Russia realized 2. Russian 3. Both Russia and Western Europe took advantage of low wage laborers to industrialize. Analyze similarities and differences for the Industrial Revolution in Europe and Japan from 1700 to 1900. Thesis: Between 1700 and 1900 both Japan and Western Europe developed a fluid social structure and underwent a period of imperial expansion, despite the fact that Japan’s industrialization was sponsored by the government while Western Europe’s was led entrepreneurs. Outline: 1. While Japanese Industrialization was largely led by the government, industrialization in Western Europe was brought around by entrepreneurs. 2. Both Western Europe and Japan created colonial empires to feed their industrializing empire. 3. Both Western Europe and Japan’s social hierarchy became more fluid due to industrialization. Compare and contrast Western intervention in the Americas to Western intervention in Africa from 1600-1900. Thesis: Outline: 1. Europeans used coercive labor in both Africa and the Americas. In the Americas, they used the encomienda and fake mita to force Amerindians to work. In Africa, they used extremely high taxes that had to be paid in European currency, which forced the natives to work for Europeans. That essentially forced Africans to work for Europeans because they had no other options. In the Americas, Europeans made colonies and imported slaves to work on the land. In Africa, Europeans got things by forced trade. 2. In the Americas, crops like sugar and tobacco were introduced and coercive labor was used to farm it. In Africa, crops like cotton, palm products were introduced. 3. Analyze the similarities and differences of labor systems in the Americas and Russia from 1750-1900. Thesis: Outline: 1. Both Russia and United States slowly replaced forced labor systems with low wage labor. 2. While the end of serfdom in Russia was brought by the tsar the emancipation of slaves in the United States was led by humanitarians 3. Analyze the similarities and differences between the Haitian Revolution to the French Revolution during the period from 1750 to 1900. Thesis: Between 1750 and 1900, both Haiti and France had revolutions that were influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment movement and consisted of an oppressed majority fighting a noble minority, but had dramatically different outcomes. Outline: 1. In both the French and Haitian revolutions, there was the lower-class citizens rebelling against the upper class. 2. In the outcomes of the revolution, the Haitians were able to establish a democratic government. France, on the other hand, slipped back into a monarchy rule. Personally, I would call it a dictatorship. =P 3. Both the French and Haitian revolutions both were influenced by the ideas of the enlightenment. Other groups ideas: (I haven’t looked at them.) 1. Industrialization was instigated by different groups in Europe and Russia, both countries banned exploited labor during industrialization, and both countries experienced significant economic growth after industrialization. 2. Industrialization was instigated by different groups in Europe and Russia, and took place at contrasting rates, and both countries saw significant economic growth after industrialization. 3. The west, in the beginning, colonized America while allying with African kingdoms, relied on both countries for the slave trade, and later harvested Africa for natural resources while separating from the Americas. BOLD THE POINTS OF COMPARISON THAT YOU WANT TO USE. Similarity Difference Analyze similarities and differences for the Industrial Revolution in Europe and Russia from 1700 to 1900. Points of Evidence/TS Cause or Effect Comparison Success of Russia and Europe differed in how successful their Industrialization Industrial Revolutions were. ● Foreign Influence In the 18th century Europe’s Industrial Revolution was a model for other nations to emulate, while Russia attempted to import as much Western information as possible. ● Entrepreneurs vs. Europe mainly industrialized through commercial, ● Russia: Crimean War, as stated. Government private activity, while Russia industrialized through ● The point itself is kinda causation. You can try government support. (bottom-up vs. top-down) effects such as: (insert effects here) ● in Europe, successful entrepreneurs-turned- bourgeoisie began using mechanized factories and low-wage workers in order to out-produce competitors both in Europe and around the world ● in Russia, the defeat and concessions made in the Crimean War was a reason for Alexander II to begin industrializing the country (bringing European engineers in to discuss railroad and telegraph building) Middle Class While Europe’s industrialization created a new class ● Europe: as stated, the middle class was in the social hierarchy, Russia’s industrialization also woefully unaware of the conditions of the stimulated the emergence of a middle class society. working class until the late 19th-20th century, ● Europe: entrepreneurs gained wealth and where they finally began improving conditions became bourgeoisie; they were also in the factories... in the meantime, they were managers, accountants, ministers, lawyers, fascinated and excited consumers of the doctors, and other skilled professionals once products of the cheap labor formal education and degrees were promoted ○ banks and joint stock companies ○ the new middle class were allowed entrepreneurs to take risks enthusiastic consumers of luxuries and become wealthy like tea, tobacco, coffee, etc. from ● Russia: Crimean War, emancipation of serfs Asia and were catalysts of growth for led peasants to learn to specialize; Russia the industrial economy began seeing the benefits of an educated ● Russia: education was promoted, and thus society in Europe and promoted education in increased literacy; peasants were learning its own nation new skills and becoming a new middle class ○ Sergie Witte created a stable banking ○ new regional councils were formed system in the 1900s that gave rising middle classes experience in ruling; these were doctors, lawyers, bourgeoisie, etc. (whaddya think? Murphdawg says at the end that Russia still lacked a LARGE middle class) ○ SLIGHT DIFFERENCE: this middle class was still not very large, and many were dependent on government programs; nobles would often challenge and stunt their growth Coercive Labor While Europe exploited the poor working class during Effect in Europe: New classes were formed, women the Industrial Revolution, Russia was similarly and children became part of the work force, new exploiting low-skilled laborers during the Industrial living arrangements (factory-run boarding houses) Revolution. removed workers from families and traditional ● Europe: the working class was structures. This also lessened the restrictions on ● Russia: although the emancipation of serfs young men and women by allowing them to manage caused some to learn new skills and become their own incomes and live away from home and a new middle class, the large majority were pursue leisure activities- all of which developed to either still working on agriculture or moved in support the new urban working class. to urban cities and were employed as low- Changes to family- middle and upper class women wage workers. expected to master domestic sphere and separate home from working life. Effects on Women Britain passed legislation that gave women more rights in the workplace. Industries had often neglected women’s rights in industry. This new legislation included stuff like health care Analyze similarities and differences for the Industrial Revolution in Europe and Japan from 1700 to 1900. Points of Evidence Cause or Effect Comparison Causation While Europe industrialized due to commercial ● Europe: interest, Japan industrialized to defend themselves ● Japan: from foreign intrusion. ○ effect: because of its goal to repel ● Europe: successful entrepreneurs-turned- foreigners, it created a strong army bourgeoisie began using mechanized with battleships, which was used in factories and low-wage workers in order to defeating Russia and expanding its out-produce competitors both in Europe and colonies (sphere of influence), thereby around the world; for the first time, science, securing its place as a world power technology, and commercial interests were linked, and thus the Industrial Revolution was born ● Japan: the goal was to take and use Western ideas but ironically they wanted to industrialize to REPEL Westerners and foreign invasion ○ Japan would bring in foreign experts, such as scientists and engineers to teach students, who would then start corporations and research institutes ○ ironically, the government encouraged foreign culture, including clothing styles Success Japan’s industrialization led to the creation of ● efficient companies, similar to Europe’s industrialization. ● after 1881, the government was forced to pay off its debts by selling the companies and factories to conglomerates of private investors ○ ex. Toyoda Loom Works was founded by Toyoda Sakichi, a carpenter ● Government Japan’s industry was initially state-owned, while ● Intervention Europe’s industry was privately owned. ● Japan’s Tokugawa Shogunate did not support industrialization until the Meiji Restoration while British government readily passed legislation that supported commercial interest. Speed While Europe’s industrialization was slower and ripe ● Japan’s rapid industrialization was partly due with mistakes, Japan’s industrialization was much to pressure from foreign threats faster. ● no unions in Japan (curbed Western books and ideas like the Enlightenment) ○ Japan’s efficiency due to the strong belief in nationalism (workers don’t go on strike in order to preserve the country and defend it) ● SLIGHT SIMILARITY: both promoted education and had semi-educated workers Educated, semi- Both Europe and Japan had high literacy rates, skilled ready allowing more advanced technological workforce advancements. Because of this, Japan’s government was able to establish a heavy industry. Social Effects introduction of a new middle class Compare and contrast Western intervention in the Americas to Western intervention in Africa from 1600-1900. Points of Evidence
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