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Department
Cultural Geography
Course
GCU 114
Professor
Daniel Hume
Semester
Summer

Description
ESSAY REQUIREMENTS: 1) THESIS [TIME PERIOD, REGION, TYPE OF CHANGE (gradual, quick), THEME, POSSIBLE CONTINUITY 2) STRUCTURE ORGANIZATION (you choose!) [MENTION GLOBAL TRENDS, LAST PARAGRAPH IS CONTINUITY!] 3) ANALYSIS: Cause and or effect 3) CONCLUDING SENTENCE TIPS: BE SURE TO RELATE TS TO THESIS, SIMPLY STATE (no need to use “fluff”) GLOBAL TREND FOR THE WHOLE ESSAY. Change and/or Continuity Over Time (Mono-Theme) Europe- Political SHIFT CHANGE: In the 4th century, Western Europe was under a unified and centralized imperialistic government until it experienced a dramatic turning point in the 5th century with the fall of the Roman Empire, causing it to fall into political fragmentation and eventually stabilize in the form of feudalism with manors and independent city states by the 13th century, although Christianity influence remained prevalent throughout. Beginning 300-530 (shortly after Third-Century Middle 530 End 600-1200 Early Medieval Europe Crisis - establish time period) -Municipal aristocracy -Fall Of Rome- Taken over by Germany in West -Independent city states ruled by a council of -Rule of Constantine after the reassignment by after split of the West and East Mediterranean people: based on trade (i.e. Florence, Flanders, Diocletian, who was able to reunite the entire (becoming separate entities) Genoa) empire under his rule in 324 -Germany took over political power giving culture -Feudalism-peasants depending on manor lords -Involved Christianity into politics, this was and way of law etc due to fear of pillagers (weak depending on caused by him winning a battle at Milvian Bridge -Complete split of West and East Church strong hallmark of post Roman period); self near Rome and seeing the cross, Christianity -Political power shifted from Rome to sufficiency (arabs and berbers vikings) THIS helped for the unification Constantinople as the West fragmented, but the CAUSED MILITARY IMPROVEMENT OF -Christianity is universal allowing many to switch East retained an Imperial government CHARLEMAGNE with political backing -Increased importance in high-ranking aristocrats -Kings and lords gave land to vassals in return -Many moved to the east; west separated. as urban elite class shrank for sworn military support: knights etc -Political dispute against pagans (polytheists) -----------------------------------------------------Political power mostly with Lords -Conflict with the west to gain land Charlemagne; Holy Roman Emperor (investiture - Manor Based Politics -Constantine still made laws controversy pope vs king, Hildebrand -Formation of Latin Church-Pope is all power, -Controlled too much land that led to...--> represented high authority of Pope) -More centralized example: Emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory -Crusades allow unity of the two churches, but betrayal -In 843 split of many of west continents like France, Burgundy, and Germany -More decentralized ----------------------------> Global Trends: The Crusades were a mark of when Western Europe finally came out of the dark ages and became more centralized for it represented a unified war effort of Western Europe. The crusades had impacts on all parts of Mediterranean. Contact with the Middle East areas brought cultural ideas and technologies, allowing for changed aspects of both Mediterranean and Middle East areas. The Crusades represented the first unified Western European military effort after the fall of the Roman Empire. CT: Throughout the time period, there was a use of Christianity on political influences. For instance, during Constantinople’s reign, Christianity was provided the political backing that helped spur on citizens’ loyalty in the 300s. Later on, despite the split, Christianity played a role in politics. In the Latin Church, the Pope ruled much of the land due to Hildebrand, an Italian monk who sealed the powers of the Pope. Constantinople on the other hand, who was part of Orthodox Christianity, suppressed the power of the Pope and believed that the emperor should rule. Europe-Economic- SHIFT CHANGE Continuing an agriculture based economies throughout the time period, Europe’s small feudalistic societies (manors) that were the basis of the subsistence or barter economies rose after the relocation of political power to Constantinople in the 4th century, but eventually shifted to a market economy by the 13th century. Beginning 300-1000 End -Economical changes continued from Diocletian -Self sufficient economy with the growth of -Improves trade because surplus is formed allows to the Byzantine Empire by Constantinople feudalism, manor run, because Germans liked for the retuning coinage (gold), more trade, and -During Constantinople’s time economical their culture, growth of Germanic traditions jobs such as craftspeople, construction workers, changes took place in order to change stabilize -Manor became the basic unit of agricultural and traders the economy production -Crusades allowed trade, merchants to get more -Due to expansion they were short on cash and -Very little free peasantry; serfs = agricultural land, boost economy, but crusades itself took maximized money on monopolies, keep people in workers money to fund military jobs, and stopped inflation of coins -Feudalism caused decrease in population, no -Crusades allowed for pasta, paper, sugar, -Economy slowly became more barter than use in many of the cities shops etc. colored glass. Belief systems that led to more coinage based because the economy needed ______________________________________ people traveling to Europe to learn medicinal, money so they lowered the value of coins, which -Revival of Western Europe 1000-1200 philosophical, poets etc from Arabs was less efficient and cut off long distance -NEW TECHNOLOGY (horse harness, heavy -Trade of spices, wax, cotton, dye, paper, sugar commerce plow, iron horse shoes) oranges. More maritime trade by crusades -Trade with others, basic no urbanization -With their subsistence economy turning into a -After the Fall of Rome--> market economy they are able to focus on thing such as the crusades Global Trends - The Crusades affected all parts of the Mediterranean. As Western European crusaders entered the Middle East on military expeditions, they were introduced to new ideas and technologies of the Muslims, which they then brought back to Western Europe. A large factor in the Crusades was Western Europe’s eagerness to establish trading relations in the Middle East. Throughout Europe, various establishments of trade routes spurred on interaction and transmission of various religions, goods, and diseases. The Bubonic Plague affected the entire Afroeurasian landmass, decreasing the total population dramatically. This in turn caused a decrease in workers and an increase in their value. The Bubonic Plague was largely due to extensive trade routes, such as the ones utilized by the Tang Empire. As a result of large communication networks, the transmission of goods, both positive and negative, were made available. CT: The economy of Western Europe continued to remain a agricultural based society that allowed for either a subsistence or market economy. Europe- Social- Turning point change: The revival of Western Europe during 1000 CE served as the turning point for Europe social life, for they were able to recover from more of an isolated manor in 600 and change into a more urbanized Europe in the 1000, with women consistently being dominated by men. Beginning 600-1000 Middle-1000 End - Revival of Rome 1000-1200 due to rise in technologies -Feudalism during 600 CE -revival of western Europe -THE CRUSADES (1095-1204) (a series of -serf/noble relationships - With more production of food more jobs as religiously inspired Christian military campaigns -king/vassal relationships craftspeople, construction workers, and traders against Muslims in the eastern Mediterranean -feudalism. Noble, knight, merchants, serfs grew, more interaction between manors, trading that dominated the politics of Europe) -Serfs were tied to their manors after swearing towns developed, all improves interaction -Cultural diffusion, spread of religion and ideas loyalty to their lords, so they were isolated to between people resulting in more jobs their manors -People left manors to work in towns, exposing -Growth in warriors class in order to be free from -Dangerous outside with bandits, etc made them to Europeans from other manors sin leaving manors not a good idea Due to technology -Increase of Italian Merchants in eastern -Women become part of feudalistic society, men BUT Mediterranean with Muslim married to get property, marriage alliances, little -Bubonic plague wipes out peasant task force, -Conflict of religions Christian vs Muslim and say, could own land, work w/ men in agricultural which made -> Christian (Latin) vs Christian (Orthodox) tasks -Bubonic Plague making workers more valuable -Religion: Pope in power, conflict w/ the king causing peasant revolts and want for money due (Latin church) = investiture controversy to close living conditions of feudalistic society -Monasticism believe in balanced life of devotion (financial instability) and work, obligations of celibacy, poverty, and obedience to the abbot, live away from society Global Trends - Monasticism was present in Western Europe with Christian monasteries and later in Tang China and Tibet, with monasteries and monks focused around Buddhism. This global trend resulted in monasteries in both regions being centers of knowledge and learning. CT: Most important, there was a c
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