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Cultural Geography
GCU 114
Daniel Hume

Double Essay Middle East Umayyad- 1st caliphate expanded through the Middle East, North African, and parts of Southern Europe Expanded because of sub military base Arab Warriors after conversion of conquered populations the new converts of Islam were not treated equally revolts by Shiite and other groups à after success of one of said revolts the Abbasid caliphate Abbasid Caliphate- Early part of Caliphate “Golden Age”- advancements/creation of Math, Astronomy, and the Arts due to the encounters with new areas through expansion with scholars Mongols ended Caliphate System in 1258 with the “Siege of Baghdad” Mongol rule- The Mongols adopted Islam Il-Khan state established tension between rulers and citizens Ottoman Empire- First a tiny state expanded because of superior army (cavalry, gunmen) After they focused on getting Constantinople Succeeded military technology advanced janissaries benefited because they were more suited for these technology increases (i.e. machine guns, cannons, lighter weight firearms) à less need for cavalrymen à erasing of cavalrymen à Rise of Janissary influence over the state Sultan tried to reform empire including European style military=elimination of janissaries started killing people (for funsies ;)). Ottoman’s used Bosnia for help against the janissaries threat of Russian intervention prevented taking Serbia back) In addition to this the Europeans much of the Ottoman’s land Turkish Republic- Mustafa Kemal took over after the end of the Ottoman Empire inheriting a crippled state from the backlash of the first Great War leaving the rest of the former Ottoman Republic fragmented into the Mandate System Latin America Aztec- Totalitarian and Oppressive Expanded throughout Mesoamerica Set up Tributary System Traditional Mexicans Power distributed to the tributary states and they allowed to govern their states freely as long as they paid tribute. Warriors at top of society because they were warrior based society Incas- Set up Tributary system Not as military based as Aztecs Good communication Peruvian Africa Ghana- Gold rich Used their gold to trade with other nations Trans-Saharan trade network Traded with Portugal and Spain Mali- promoted Islam in West Africa Songhai- trading center successor of Mali Got wealth from trans-Saharan trade Conquered by Moroccans Zulu- Most powerful southern Africa fighting force Took over many lands, feared by many. Central Asia Kievan Russia- trading state with a western influence Mongols shift capital from Kiev to Moscow give control of tax collection Moscow Princes Golden Horde- Put a class over the Russians to tax them Tsarist Russia- Tsar position was controlled by the Romanovs lived lavish lifestyles while the rest lived poor Resentment by Bolsheviks Led to double revolution Failure in War vs Germans Tsar Nicholas fled because of mass demonstrations by soldiers Alexander Kerensky formed Provincial government Bolsheviks rose up and took control (Lenin) arrested members of opposing party (Mensheviks) East Asia Tang- Under the Tang, China became larger than ever before. Tang China also forced many of its neighbors into a tributary system, in which K, V, J, and other regions had to make regular monetary payments to avoid punishment. Their economy was very strong because of: advanced infrastructure (good roads, waterways, and canals- especially the Grand Canal, which the Tang rulers improved) and increased trade. In particular, the silk industry made the Chinese who guarded the secret exceptionally wealthy. Greater control over the southern coast allowed China to take greater part in the IOTN. They also traded with the M.E. and the Mediterranean by the Silk Road. They were also cultural patrons. For example. Emperor Xuanzong sponsored the creation of the Han Lin Academy of Letters. They exerted a strong artistic and religious influence over their neighbors, including K & J. Song- After the Tang broke down, China fragmented into separate states. The largest and longest lasting of the states was the Song Empire. They lasted until a period of warring with their neighbors in which they lost territory steadily. The Song paid a tribute of silk and cash to the Liao (their threat to the north), but then destroyed them with help from the Jurchen, but then the Jurchen proclaimed their own empire and turned on the Song, and the Song lost territory, and withdrew to the south. This smaller version of the Song state survived until the Mongols. They enjoyed steady population growth, and it was the world’s most heavily urbanized society, home to the largest cities on earth, and although its economic ties with C.A. and the M.E. weakened, they became more involved with the Pacific coast and Southeast Asia. Junks cruised the eastern seas and Indian Ocean, carrying silk and manufactured goods. Song China was the most scientifically and technologically advanced society of its time (minus the Abbasid Caliphate). They were super math nerds and astronomers. They made the compass, a celestial clock, gunpowder, block printing, and paper money. There was a great revival of Confucius’s teachings- Neo-Confucianism got under way during this period. Also, it reinforced Chinese culture’s tendency toward hierarchy and obedience. It put a premium on education and cultured behavior. Most governmental officials gained their posts by scoring well on rigorous civil service examinations, a Confucian practice. Yuan- China and Southeast Asia fell to Kublai Khan, who moved his capital from Mongolia to the Chinese city of Beijing and proclaimed the Yuan Empire. He conquered the rest of China including the Song state. He and the Mongol leadership acculturated to Chinese ways they adopted Buddhism and as an official language, Mandarin Chinese. He can be considered the reunifier of China as a single state. He made Yuan China rich and powerful. He forced China’s neighbors to pay tribute and the Yuan Empire resisted attacks from other Mongol states in Central Asia. He rebuilt China’s bureaucracy and economy. He repaired roads and canals and built new cities, and restored trade with the west. The Silk Road that had been dormant, once again became vital! Marco Polo visited Kublai Khan’s China. After he died, China suffered tremendous population loss due to the bubonic plague and economic decline resulted from the population loss. Then, a series of civil wars broke out, and a final rebellion overthrew the Yuan. Ming- The rebel who brought down the Yuan Empire, Zhu Yuanzhang became emperor and established the Ming Dynasty, one of the longest-lasting and most famous in Chinese history. His son was Yongle, who was also a strong leader. He and his son re-centralized the country and repaired the damage done by the wars of the 1300s. Once again, there was population grew, and the economy recovered! Yongle transformed Beijing into a magnificent capital by building the Forbidden City, which served as the imperial residence and seat of government The early Ming rulers expanded China’s
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