1. The Whole Shebang Double Essay
Please note that the essay will most likely be between 600 and 1900.
Peoples of Murphdawg:
do not focus Vedic India
time periods to focus on:
focus on all time periods for EU, AFR, ME, EA
Unit 3 onwards LA, SA
Unit 4 onwards- CA
Extended Unit Reviews:
Universal Religions and Belief Systems (Classical and
Confucianism. Confucianism is not a religion — it is a philosophy. It developed in China in the 500s BCE by
Confucius (during Warring States period after Zhou era). Because of this, Confucius pondered
individual’s relationship to state. main idea: benevolent society can exist with good, moral,
kind leadership from above and obedience from below. based on the familial structure also
described in his Confucian principles. effects: emphasis on familial relationships that stem into
social hierarchy (THINK CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATIONS from Han dynasty onwards), respect for
authority persisted even in modern era (ie communism!).
EUROPE!!!!! political changes
Crusades- There were a total of four failed crusades. The first was in 1096, when Pope Urban made an angry speech.
He hoped to take back Jerusalem, stop the spread of Islam, reunite the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern
Orthodox Church, and possibly get some monies on the way. Though they didn’t reach their original goals, the
crusades led to a flood of Arabic knowledge in Europe. This really helped wake Europe up and get them back in the
Protestant Reformation- Christianity reform movement established new churches following the new Protestant sect
of Christianity. In 1517 Martin Luther posted his 95 theses to the door of a church. In it, he desceribed the ways the
Catholic church was corrupt, and used the printing press to spread his ideas far and wide. The Pope was outraged,
but couldn’t do anything because people protected Luther. Eventually, Christianity split into Catholic and Protestant.
Within Protestantism, there were several smaller movements (like Calvinism, those crazies). Luther had made it OK
to challenge the wisdom of the Pope.
Renaissance-revival of art and literature 14th to 16th Centuries. This was sort of caused by the Crusades. When
Europe invaded the Middle East, they brought back some Greek and Roman knowledge that had been preserved
there in the form of translations.
Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution- After the Renaissance and Protestant Reformation, the Scientific Revolution
and Enlightenment brought new ways of thinking. The Scientific Revolution was the beginning of empirical
observation and rationality, which also challenged the Catholic Church. The Enlightenment and its philosophers
brought new ideas about government and human nature. Feudalism-
Role of Church- diminishes as revolutions take root
Industrial Revolutions- technology boom. People can do so much more.
Revolutions- nations break free, others seek a place in the world by parading around with imperialism. and those
countries have their own revolutions. more freedom. Europe divides up countries, gives them independence, and
takes chunks of the world for its own= much of the world eventually comes under European powers’ power.
this led to a New Imperialism of countries in the New World and in SE Asia
European powers at War- because Europeans have exerted tremendous influence at this point, when they are at
war, ERRYBODY gets involved. and this leads to World Wars. literally.
The Middle East!!!
Umayyad- 1st caliphate expanded through the Middle East, North African, and parts of Southern Europe
Expanded because of sub military base Arab Warriors after conversion of conquered populations the new converts of
Islam were not treated equally revolts by Shiite and other groups à after success of one of said revolts the Abbasid
Abbasid Caliphate- Early part of Caliphate “Golden Age”- advancements/creation of Math, Astronomy, and the Arts
due to the encounters with new areas through expansion with scholars
Mongols ended Caliphate System in 1258 with the “Siege of Baghdad”
Mongol rule- The Mongols adopted Islam Il-Khan state established tension between rulers and citizens
Ottoman Empire- First a tiny state expanded because of superior army (cavalry, gunmen, gunpowder, JANISSARIES)
After they focused on getting Constantinople Succeeded military technology advanced janissaries benefited because they were more suited for these technology increases
(i.e. machine guns, cannons, lighter weight firearms) à less need for cavalrymen à erasing of cavalrymen à Rise of
Janissary influence over the state
Sultan tried to reform empire including European style military=elimination of janissaries started killing people (for
funsies ;)). Ottoman’s used Bosnia for help against the janissaries threat of Russian intervention prevented taking
In addition to this the Europeans took much of the Ottoman’s land
Turkish Republic- Mustafa Kemal took over after the end of the Ottoman Empire inheriting a crippled state from the
backlash of the first Great War leaving the rest of the former Ottoman Republic fragmented into the Mandate
East Asia: The Dynasties and Political Figures in China
The starred ones represent periods of foreigner rule, meaning that these were especially distinctive.
Qin Not required for essay. Brutal Shi Huangdi. Consolidated China, Great Wall, census, standard
weights measures, expanded china to Vietnam and hong kong. Massive revolts after death leading
Han Not required for the essay. Less brutal than Qin, but maintained centralized rule. Wu Di expanded
territory even further, set up formal training (based on Confucianism) for bureaucratic positions.
State bureaucracy had expanded powers significantly. China had 130,000 perfectly trained
bureaucrats under gov’t supervision. Tax collections, annual mandatory labor services strengthened
central govt power.
Long decline with invasions from outside forces ESP THE HUNS
They collapsed after est pol/ cul. Values that would last until late 1900s
Tang 618–906: Under the Tang, China became larger than ever before. Tang China also forced many of its
neighbors into a tributary system, in which Korea, Vietnam, Japan, and other regions had to make
regular monetary payments to avoid punishment. Their economy was very strong because of advanced infrastructure (good roads, waterways, and canals- especially the Grand Canal, which the
Tang rulers improved) and increased trade. In particular, the silk industry made the Chinese who
guarded the secret exceptionally wealthy. Greater control over the southern coast allowed China to
take greater part in the IOTN. They also traded with the M.E. and the Mediterranean by the Silk
Road. They were also cultural patrons. For example. Emperor Xuanzong sponsored the creation of
the Han Lin Academy of Letters. They exerted a strong artistic and religious influence over their
neighbors, including K & J.
Song After the Tang broke down, China fragmented into separate states. The largest and longest lasting
of the states was the Song Empire. They lasted until a period of warring with their neighbors in
which they lost territory steadily. The Song paid a tribute of silk and cash to the Liao (their threat to
the north), but then destroyed them with help from the Jurchen, but then the Jurchen proclaimed
their own empire and turned on the Song, and the Song lost territory, and withdrew to the south.
This smaller version of the Song state survived until the Mongols. They enjoyed steady population
growth, and it was the world’s most heavily urbanized society, home to the largest cities on earth,
and although its economic ties with C.A. and the M.E. weakened, they became more involved with
the Pacific coast and Southeast Asia. Junks cruised the eastern seas and Indian Ocean, carrying silk
and manufactured goods. Song China was the most scientifically and technologically advanced
society of its time (minus the Abbasid Caliphate). They were super math nerds and astronomers.
They made the compass, a celestial clock, gunpowder, block printing, and paper money. There was
a great revival of Confucius’s teachings- Neo-Confucianism got under way during this period. Also, it
reinforced Chinese culture’s tendency toward hierarchy and obedience. It put a premium on
education and cultured behavior. Most governmental officials gained their posts by scoring well on
rigorous civil service examinations, a Confucian practice.
Yuan* Mongols divided into separate units, w/ Kublai Khan taking SE Asia, moving capital from Mongolia to
Beijing (rule from 1271- 1368). adopted Buddhism, made Mandarin official language, reunified China
under single state, most of military campaigns succeeded- couldn’t defeat Japan or Java, but
resisted other Mongol attacks from Central Asia. He rebuilt bureaucacy and economy, revived roads/
canals/ cities (Xanadu), TRADE WITH WEST!! YEAH BABY. Silk Road (previously fallen into inactivity)
resotred and vital again, MARCO POLO visited 1270s. after Khan’s death, POPULATION LOSS 1300s (BLACK PLAGUE spread to ME AND EUR via you guessed it- SILK ROAD). economic decline ensued →
civil wars → Yuan overthrown 1368
China and Southeast Asia fell to Kublai Khan, who moved his capital from Mongolia to the Chinese
city of Beijing and proclaimed the Yuan Empire. He conquered the rest of China including the Song
state. He and the Mongol leadership acculturated to Chinese ways they adopted Buddhism and as
an official language, Mandarin Chinese. He can be considered the reunifier of China as a single
state. He made Yuan China rich and powerful. He forced China’s neighbors to pay tribute and the
Yuan Empire resisted attacks from other Mongol states in Central Asia. He rebuilt China’s
bureaucracy and economy. He repaired roads and canals and built new cities, and restored trade
with the west. The Silk Road that had been dormant, once again became vital! Marco Polo visited
Kublai Khan’s China. After he died, China suffered tremendous population loss due to the bubonic
plague and economic decline resulted from the population loss. Then, a series of civil wars broke
out, and a final rebellion overthrew the Yuan.
Ming 1368- 1644- Hongwu and son Yongle recentralized country, repaired damage, population grew,
econ. recovered, Beijing transformed into capital of FORBIDDEN CITY. expanded China’s borders,
tributary system; alliances with Vietnam (Annam and Champa), Korea (Yi). Drove away Timur when
he tried to attack. Navy was great instrument of diplomacy for a while- ZHENG HE (1405- 1433) THE
EUNUCH- several voyages to SE Asia, ME, E Africa, forced 50 states to pay tribute. Yongle died, Ming
distracted by threats of invaders in north, lost interest in trade, ended sea voyages. LOTS OF ART-
porcelain, Confucianism and Buddhism prominent forces in philosophy and religion, scroll painting,
The rebel who brought down the Yuan Empire, Zhu Yuanzhang became emperor and established the
Ming Dynasty, one of the longest-lasting and most famous in Chinese history. His son was Yongle,
who was also a strong leader. He and his son re-centralized the country and repaired the damage
done by the wars of the 1300s. Once again, there was population grew, and the economy
recovered! Yongle transformed Beijing into a magnificent capital by building the Forbidden City,
which served as the imperial residence and seat of government The early Ming rulers expanded China’s borders abroad. They maintained a tributary system. They forged alliances with kingdoms in
V and K. When the Mongol warlord Timur, who defeated the Delhi Sultanate, attacked China, the
Ming decisively drove him away. Not only was its army large and effective, its navy was for a time a
potent instrument of diplomacy and intimidation. The admiral and explorer Zheng He made seven
long voyages to S.E. Asia, India, the M.E. and East Africa. He expanded Chinese trade, gained much
knowledge about he outside world, and forced fifty states and cities to pay tribute. After Yongle
died, the Ming rulers lost interest in exploration and naval expansion.This can be seen as a global
turning point!!! had the Ming continued to exploit their power at sea, China might have started a
wave of worldwide exploration and colonization, as the nations of Europe were about to do.
Culturally, the Ming years remain famous as a time of artistic grandeur and intellectual dynamism.
Chinese art, religion, and literature continued to exert an influence on countries such as K, V, and J.
Confucianism was restored into its place of prominence, rejoining Buddhism as a guiding force in
Chinese philosophy and religion. Great works of classical Chinese literature appeared, including a
new form of writing, the novel. Ming artisans produced some of the most exquisite glassware
ceramics, and, especially, porcelain that the world has ever seen. Another major art form was scroll
painting, which depicted landscapes, historical scenes, and human and animal figures on long,
vertical rolls of silk and paper.
Qing* The Qing dynasty was founded by the Manchus, an ethnic minority of China. The Empire’s territorial
expansion and conquests brought stability to Central China after years of instability although it
would cause political chaos in the later part of the dynasty. Anyways, back to the conquests: they
doubled the population between 1650 and 1800 due to the expansion of the agricultural base. This
caused homelessness and unemployment , it also caused serious environmental damage. The Qing
Empire became hated throughout China and the world. Another crisis appeared in China during the
rule of the Qing; Britain introduced to China the Opium plant and basically created a nation of
addicts. The Manchu emperor saw how destructive it was and placed a ban on British opium, Britain
saw this as a threat and started the Opium War when negotiations between the Qing and British
reached a stalemate. The British defeated the Qing easily and through the Treaty of Nanking many
ports opened to foreigners and Hong Kong became a British colony. Britain was also extended the
most favored nation status in which any privileges granted to any country would be automatically
granted to Britain. China also experienced Civil War with the Taiping rebellion. Guomindan At the turn of the century, Empress Cixi encouraged the Boxers to rise up and eliminate foreigners
g from China. This movement lead the Boxers to threaten the foreign legation in Beijing.
Revolutionaries were shocked and angered by thes