The Whole Shebang.doc

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Cultural Geography
GCU 114
Daniel Hume

1. The Whole Shebang Double Essay Please note that the essay will most likely be between 600 and 1900. Peoples of Murphdawg: do not focus Vedic India time periods to focus on: focus on all time periods for EU, AFR, ME, EA Unit 3 onwards LA, SA Unit 4 onwards- CA Extended Unit Reviews: Universal Religions and Belief Systems (Classical and beyond) Confucianism. Confucianism is not a religion — it is a philosophy. It developed in China in the 500s BCE by Confucius (during Warring States period after Zhou era). Because of this, Confucius pondered individual’s relationship to state. main idea: benevolent society can exist with good, moral, kind leadership from above and obedience from below. based on the familial structure also described in his Confucian principles. effects: emphasis on familial relationships that stem into social hierarchy (THINK CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATIONS from Han dynasty onwards), respect for authority persisted even in modern era (ie communism!). Neo- confucianism Chan/Son/Zen EUROPE!!!!! political changes Europe Crusades- There were a total of four failed crusades. The first was in 1096, when Pope Urban made an angry speech. He hoped to take back Jerusalem, stop the spread of Islam, reunite the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church, and possibly get some monies on the way. Though they didn’t reach their original goals, the crusades led to a flood of Arabic knowledge in Europe. This really helped wake Europe up and get them back in the game. Protestant Reformation- Christianity reform movement established new churches following the new Protestant sect of Christianity. In 1517 Martin Luther posted his 95 theses to the door of a church. In it, he desceribed the ways the Catholic church was corrupt, and used the printing press to spread his ideas far and wide. The Pope was outraged, but couldn’t do anything because people protected Luther. Eventually, Christianity split into Catholic and Protestant. Within Protestantism, there were several smaller movements (like Calvinism, those crazies). Luther had made it OK to challenge the wisdom of the Pope. Renaissance-revival of art and literature 14th to 16th Centuries. This was sort of caused by the Crusades. When Europe invaded the Middle East, they brought back some Greek and Roman knowledge that had been preserved there in the form of translations. Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution- After the Renaissance and Protestant Reformation, the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment brought new ways of thinking. The Scientific Revolution was the beginning of empirical observation and rationality, which also challenged the Catholic Church. The Enlightenment and its philosophers brought new ideas about government and human nature. Feudalism- Role of Church- diminishes as revolutions take root Industrial Revolutions- technology boom. People can do so much more. Revolutions- nations break free, others seek a place in the world by parading around with imperialism. and those countries have their own revolutions. more freedom. Europe divides up countries, gives them independence, and takes chunks of the world for its own= much of the world eventually comes under European powers’ power. this led to a New Imperialism of countries in the New World and in SE Asia European powers at War- because Europeans have exerted tremendous influence at this point, when they are at war, ERRYBODY gets involved. and this leads to World Wars. literally. The Middle East!!! Middle East Umayyad- 1st caliphate expanded through the Middle East, North African, and parts of Southern Europe Expanded because of sub military base Arab Warriors after conversion of conquered populations the new converts of Islam were not treated equally revolts by Shiite and other groups à after success of one of said revolts the Abbasid caliphate Abbasid Caliphate- Early part of Caliphate “Golden Age”- advancements/creation of Math, Astronomy, and the Arts due to the encounters with new areas through expansion with scholars Mongols ended Caliphate System in 1258 with the “Siege of Baghdad” Mongol rule- The Mongols adopted Islam Il-Khan state established tension between rulers and citizens Ottoman Empire- First a tiny state expanded because of superior army (cavalry, gunmen, gunpowder, JANISSARIES) After they focused on getting Constantinople Succeeded military technology advanced janissaries benefited because they were more suited for these technology increases (i.e. machine guns, cannons, lighter weight firearms) à less need for cavalrymen à erasing of cavalrymen à Rise of Janissary influence over the state Sultan tried to reform empire including European style military=elimination of janissaries started killing people (for funsies ;)). Ottoman’s used Bosnia for help against the janissaries threat of Russian intervention prevented taking Serbia back) In addition to this the Europeans took much of the Ottoman’s land Turkish Republic- Mustafa Kemal took over after the end of the Ottoman Empire inheriting a crippled state from the backlash of the first Great War leaving the rest of the former Ottoman Republic fragmented into the Mandate System East Asia: The Dynasties and Political Figures in China The starred ones represent periods of foreigner rule, meaning that these were especially distinctive. Qin Not required for essay. Brutal Shi Huangdi. Consolidated China, Great Wall, census, standard weights measures, expanded china to Vietnam and hong kong. Massive revolts after death leading to Han Han Not required for the essay. Less brutal than Qin, but maintained centralized rule. Wu Di expanded territory even further, set up formal training (based on Confucianism) for bureaucratic positions. State bureaucracy had expanded powers significantly. China had 130,000 perfectly trained bureaucrats under gov’t supervision. Tax collections, annual mandatory labor services strengthened central govt power. Long decline with invasions from outside forces ESP THE HUNS They collapsed after est pol/ cul. Values that would last until late 1900s Tang 618–906: Under the Tang, China became larger than ever before. Tang China also forced many of its neighbors into a tributary system, in which Korea, Vietnam, Japan, and other regions had to make regular monetary payments to avoid punishment. Their economy was very strong because of advanced infrastructure (good roads, waterways, and canals- especially the Grand Canal, which the Tang rulers improved) and increased trade. In particular, the silk industry made the Chinese who guarded the secret exceptionally wealthy. Greater control over the southern coast allowed China to take greater part in the IOTN. They also traded with the M.E. and the Mediterranean by the Silk Road. They were also cultural patrons. For example. Emperor Xuanzong sponsored the creation of the Han Lin Academy of Letters. They exerted a strong artistic and religious influence over their neighbors, including K & J. Song After the Tang broke down, China fragmented into separate states. The largest and longest lasting of the states was the Song Empire. They lasted until a period of warring with their neighbors in which they lost territory steadily. The Song paid a tribute of silk and cash to the Liao (their threat to the north), but then destroyed them with help from the Jurchen, but then the Jurchen proclaimed their own empire and turned on the Song, and the Song lost territory, and withdrew to the south. This smaller version of the Song state survived until the Mongols. They enjoyed steady population growth, and it was the world’s most heavily urbanized society, home to the largest cities on earth, and although its economic ties with C.A. and the M.E. weakened, they became more involved with the Pacific coast and Southeast Asia. Junks cruised the eastern seas and Indian Ocean, carrying silk and manufactured goods. Song China was the most scientifically and technologically advanced society of its time (minus the Abbasid Caliphate). They were super math nerds and astronomers. They made the compass, a celestial clock, gunpowder, block printing, and paper money. There was a great revival of Confucius’s teachings- Neo-Confucianism got under way during this period. Also, it reinforced Chinese culture’s tendency toward hierarchy and obedience. It put a premium on education and cultured behavior. Most governmental officials gained their posts by scoring well on rigorous civil service examinations, a Confucian practice. Yuan* Mongols divided into separate units, w/ Kublai Khan taking SE Asia, moving capital from Mongolia to Beijing (rule from 1271- 1368). adopted Buddhism, made Mandarin official language, reunified China under single state, most of military campaigns succeeded- couldn’t defeat Japan or Java, but resisted other Mongol attacks from Central Asia. He rebuilt bureaucacy and economy, revived roads/ canals/ cities (Xanadu), TRADE WITH WEST!! YEAH BABY. Silk Road (previously fallen into inactivity) resotred and vital again, MARCO POLO visited 1270s. after Khan’s death, POPULATION LOSS 1300s (BLACK PLAGUE spread to ME AND EUR via you guessed it- SILK ROAD). economic decline ensued → civil wars → Yuan overthrown 1368 China and Southeast Asia fell to Kublai Khan, who moved his capital from Mongolia to the Chinese city of Beijing and proclaimed the Yuan Empire. He conquered the rest of China including the Song state. He and the Mongol leadership acculturated to Chinese ways they adopted Buddhism and as an official language, Mandarin Chinese. He can be considered the reunifier of China as a single state. He made Yuan China rich and powerful. He forced China’s neighbors to pay tribute and the Yuan Empire resisted attacks from other Mongol states in Central Asia. He rebuilt China’s bureaucracy and economy. He repaired roads and canals and built new cities, and restored trade with the west. The Silk Road that had been dormant, once again became vital! Marco Polo visited Kublai Khan’s China. After he died, China suffered tremendous population loss due to the bubonic plague and economic decline resulted from the population loss. Then, a series of civil wars broke out, and a final rebellion overthrew the Yuan. Ming 1368- 1644- Hongwu and son Yongle recentralized country, repaired damage, population grew, econ. recovered, Beijing transformed into capital of FORBIDDEN CITY. expanded China’s borders, tributary system; alliances with Vietnam (Annam and Champa), Korea (Yi). Drove away Timur when he tried to attack. Navy was great instrument of diplomacy for a while- ZHENG HE (1405- 1433) THE EUNUCH- several voyages to SE Asia, ME, E Africa, forced 50 states to pay tribute. Yongle died, Ming distracted by threats of invaders in north, lost interest in trade, ended sea voyages. LOTS OF ART- porcelain, Confucianism and Buddhism prominent forces in philosophy and religion, scroll painting, — The rebel who brought down the Yuan Empire, Zhu Yuanzhang became emperor and established the Ming Dynasty, one of the longest-lasting and most famous in Chinese history. His son was Yongle, who was also a strong leader. He and his son re-centralized the country and repaired the damage done by the wars of the 1300s. Once again, there was population grew, and the economy recovered! Yongle transformed Beijing into a magnificent capital by building the Forbidden City, which served as the imperial residence and seat of government The early Ming rulers expanded China’s borders abroad. They maintained a tributary system. They forged alliances with kingdoms in V and K. When the Mongol warlord Timur, who defeated the Delhi Sultanate, attacked China, the Ming decisively drove him away. Not only was its army large and effective, its navy was for a time a potent instrument of diplomacy and intimidation. The admiral and explorer Zheng He made seven long voyages to S.E. Asia, India, the M.E. and East Africa. He expanded Chinese trade, gained much knowledge about he outside world, and forced fifty states and cities to pay tribute. After Yongle died, the Ming rulers lost interest in exploration and naval expansion.This can be seen as a global turning point!!! had the Ming continued to exploit their power at sea, China might have started a wave of worldwide exploration and colonization, as the nations of Europe were about to do. Culturally, the Ming years remain famous as a time of artistic grandeur and intellectual dynamism. Chinese art, religion, and literature continued to exert an influence on countries such as K, V, and J. Confucianism was restored into its place of prominence, rejoining Buddhism as a guiding force in Chinese philosophy and religion. Great works of classical Chinese literature appeared, including a new form of writing, the novel. Ming artisans produced some of the most exquisite glassware ceramics, and, especially, porcelain that the world has ever seen. Another major art form was scroll painting, which depicted landscapes, historical scenes, and human and animal figures on long, vertical rolls of silk and paper. Qing* The Qing dynasty was founded by the Manchus, an ethnic minority of China. The Empire’s territorial expansion and conquests brought stability to Central China after years of instability although it would cause political chaos in the later part of the dynasty. Anyways, back to the conquests: they doubled the population between 1650 and 1800 due to the expansion of the agricultural base. This caused homelessness and unemployment , it also caused serious environmental damage. The Qing Empire became hated throughout China and the world. Another crisis appeared in China during the rule of the Qing; Britain introduced to China the Opium plant and basically created a nation of addicts. The Manchu emperor saw how destructive it was and placed a ban on British opium, Britain saw this as a threat and started the Opium War when negotiations between the Qing and British reached a stalemate. The British defeated the Qing easily and through the Treaty of Nanking many ports opened to foreigners and Hong Kong became a British colony. Britain was also extended the most favored nation status in which any privileges granted to any country would be automatically granted to Britain. China also experienced Civil War with the Taiping rebellion. Guomindan At the turn of the century, Empress Cixi encouraged the Boxers to rise up and eliminate foreigners g from China. This movement lead the Boxers to threaten the foreign legation in Beijing. Revolutionaries were shocked and angered by thes
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