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Arizona State University
HST 101
Tom Wang

WHAP Chapter 28 Pre-Test Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that best answers the question or completes the statement. 1. Englishmen Henry Bessemer is best known for his advances in producing: a. steel b. aniline dyes c. nitrocellulose d. dynamite 2. The new steel mills increased the world’s steel production, as well as: a. tin, ore, and other metals b. creating thousands of low-skilled jobs c. significant environmental degradation d. all of the above 3. The chemical dye industry hurt tropical nations such as India because: a. of those nations’ textile industries b. the industry exploited workers in those countries c. those nations grew the most indigo d. of the environmental impact of dye factories 4. Industrial chemistry was a great advantage to Germany because Germany: a. controlled the sources for the raw materials b. was the most innovative nation at that time c. allowed the government to support those industries d. had the most advanced scientific institutions 5. The most prominent early use of electric current was: a. in steel making b. for lighting c. telegraph systems d. in the chemical dye industry 6. How did electricity alleviate some environmental problems? a. Electricity could be used to purify water b. Electric machines produced only smoke and not soot c. Electric motors and lamps did not pollute the air d. it did not have any appreciable impact on the environment 7. How was ocean shipping transformed by the mid-nineteenth century? a. more efficient powerful engines b. the average size of freighters increased from 200 to 7500 tons c. steel replaced wooden hulls d. all of the above 8. The “annihilation of time and space,” extolled by the public and the press, referred especially to: a. the development of aircraft b. submarine telegraph cables c. transcontinental railroads d. the science fiction musings of H.G. Wells 9. By 1915, the U.S. railroad network was: a. the largest in the world b. second only to Japan c. designed by German engineers d. built with the labor of African slaves 10. Despite the prosperity in the west due to the growth of world trade, economies periodically experienced: a. severe labor shortages b. inflation of their currencies that “overheated” their economies c. booms followed by depressions in the business cycle d. social upheaval between “haves” and “have nots” 11. By 1900, the nation that controlled the majority of the world’s trade and finances was: a. Germany b. Great Britain c. Russia d. the United States 12. The increase in the number of Europeans overseas was largely due to: a. a drop in the death rate b. epidemic disease in Europe c. famine and starvation d. all of the above 13. How did the cities change their character? a. Railroads with regular schedules brought food and commuters into the cities to work b. the creation of police and fire departments c. improved sanitation and lower death rates d. All of the above 14. The most important urban technological innovation was: a. gas and electricity for lighting b. electric streetcars and subways c. paved roadways for transport and travel d. pipes for water and sewage 15. The middle class exhibited its wealth: a. in paying high prices for health care b. in fine houses, servants, and elegant entertainment c. in generous donation to charity d. all of the above 16. The nineteenth-century movement that defended workers against their employers was: a. Social Darwinism b. liberalism c. socialism d. millenarianism 17. Karl Marx defined “surplus value” as the: a. appropriate profit of business b. difference between wages and the value of goods c. proper cost of goods in the marketplace d. the amount that business overcharged the consumer 18. The goal of the International Working Man’s Association was to: a. overthrow the bourgeoisie b. eventually become the Communist Party c. end the laziness and inherent sloth of the worker d. teach that the poor are deemed to stay poor by natural law 19. Workers around the world primarily sough change: a. by participating in the political system through voting b. by overthrowing political institutions c. by organizing labor unions d. through radical socialist ideology 20. Working-class women had the difficult task of: a. being punctual for union meetings because of childcare responsibilities b. reconciling their role as workers with their role as women c. combining work and play d. being accepted as members of the factory workforce 21. Working-class women earned money to support the family by: a. doing piecework such as sewing, making lace, hats, or gloves b. doing laundry for people c. taking in boarders d. all of the above 22. The Victorian Age refers to rules of behavior and family wherein: a. marriage was an economic contract between male and female b. the subordination of the wife was entrenched by custom and law c. the home was idealized and couples emphasized love, duty, and religious values d. male and female children were educated away from the family in boarding schools 23. Late-nineteenth century attitudes toward women dictated that they: a. should work in factories b. should not spend the family
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