[PSYC BC 1119y] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (19 pages long)

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PSYC BC 1119y
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Day 2: January 19th, 2017
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ENTIRE LECTURE PPT IS POSTED
Scope and History of Behavioral Neuroscience
First part of lecture - contextualize, not on exam
“What did you get yourselves into? Numbers”
Why study neuroscience?
Levels of analysis
o Neuro can be studied from many different perspectives (Social level, organ level,
neural systems level, brain region level, circuit level, cellular level, synaptic level,
molecular level)
Behavioral neuroscience aka biological psychology akak physiological psychology aka
psychobiology aka neurobiology and behavior
Drawing from dozens of disciplines (anatomy, biology, psychology, etc)
A (Very) Brief HIstory of Behavioral Neuroscience
Cardiocentric Theory
o Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.)
o Heart occupies the uppermost place in psychological and physiological hierarchy
o The heart @ center of everything...kind of makes sense. All of the blood in your
body pumps through your heart; it’s warm, actively bleeding. Aristotle though it’s
where our mind / thoughts / behavior emanated from
o We still have a hangover from this - we say things like “I knew it in my heart,” etc.
o We now know, of course, that the heart is not where the brain is. That came
along later...
Encephalocentric Theory
o Galen of Pergamon (A.D. 129-216)
o “Brain receives all sensations, produces images and understands thoughts”
o Encephalo being the brain; brain-centric theory
o Galen was going against Aristotle; it’s not the heart, it’s the brain
o Why did Galen come up with this theory? He also was the physician to many
gladiators, and when they were injured or killed he had to take care of them.
When they had brains bashed in, he was able to look anatomically at how the
brain was connected to the rest of the body. Able to notice connections between
sight and brain, fibers, etc.
Galen didn’t get everything right….got wrong HOW the nervous system communicated
o He thought that nerves conducted fluid (that was secreted by the brain and
spinal cord) to the body’s periphery (predominated until mid-1800s)
o Though this fluid controlled our behavior
o Incorrect, but it persisted for a very, very long time - even into the 1800’s
However, in 1892 Santiago Ramon y Cajal begun to develop the Neuron Doctrine
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Because of advancement in technology!! Two things helped him:
o Tissue staining techniques (Camillo Golgi 1843-1926) - see diagram on slide.
How you actually stain tissues to visualize things on slides. This was developed
by Camillo Golgi.
o Compound microscope - new development that helped him. Allowed him to look
@ samples more closely.
o Between the staining protocol and the compound microscope, he was able to
start developing the Neuron Doctrine.
o PICTURE ON SLIDE: what a brain slice would look like stained with the
technique and viewed under a microscope.
Neuron Doctrine: individual neurons are the elementary signaling elements of the
nervous system
Therefore, nervous tissue is not one continuous web, but a network of discrete cells
Before this, they thought the brain had a central chamber and things coming off of it.
That it was a single entity, or a net. But Ramon y Cajal suggested that it’s not a single
entity but actually a lot of little entities - little individual cells. As we know now, about 100
billion. He was able to come to this conclusion by taking a very, very close look and
noticing the individual cells with spaces in between. He didn’t know what the spaces
were then, though. But he noticed the neurons.
Shared (with Camillo Golgi) Nobel Prize in Physiology & Medicine in 1906
o Interesting because they actually were diametrically opposed and argued
different points of view during their lectures, but they shared the prize for their
discovery. SO, “you don't always have to be right to win the Nobel Prize
Two images on slide: Ramon y Cajal (1852-1934); drawing by Ramon y Cajal - he was
an incredible artist
Also in late 19th century...Claude Bernard (1813 - 1876)
Approached neuroscience from a more physiological perspective
Chemicals do not interact with cells arbitrarily, but rather bind to specific
“receptors”, typically located in the membrane on the cell surface
Idea of a chemical basis of communication between nerve cells
Seemed to be many different chemicals that had specificity; dif chemicals having
different actions in the brain. Individual cells have unique ways of communicating on a
chemical basis.
Localization of Function in the Nervous System
Now doctors use MRIs, see what parts of brains light up / what bit of brain does what
function
Gall took it to an absurd level
Franz Joseph Gall
Argued that particular regions of the cortex controlled specific functions
Correlated the personality of individuals with bumps on their skulls (phrenology)
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