BIO 1106 Study Guide - Fall 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - Zygote, Animal, Sperm

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30 Nov 2019
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Kingdom Animalia 2
-Be able to differentiate between classes within phyla
-Focus on pictures in lab manual as examples
-Pay attention to anterior vs. posterior ends of worms
-Use dissecting microscope for whole specimen slides
Phylum Platyhelminthes (flat worms) Exercise 37
-Characteristics= dorsoventrally flattened bodies, bilateral symmetry, true organ systems, triploblastic (3 true germ layers- ectoderm,
endoderm, mesoderm), one opening to gastrovascular cavity (mouth and anus are same opening), acoelomate (have no body cavity)
Class Turbellaria free-living (not parasitic) flatworms
Dugesia
Commonly called planaria
Whole mount (Fig. 37.1)
Cross-section slide (Fig. 37.3b)
Living example under dissecting microscope
Class Trematoda parasitic flukes
Opisthorchis
Also known as Clonorchis
Chinese liver fluke
Anterior vs. posterior and internal anatomy
Whole mount (Fig. 37.5)
Fasciola
Sheep liver fluke
Very large
Anterior vs. posterior and internal anatomy
Whole mount (Fig. 37.7)
Schistosoma
Blood fluke
Causes schistosomiasis
Dioecious worm (separate male and females)
Slide showing male and female in copulation (Fig. 37.8b #2)
Class Cestoda tapeworms
Taenia
Slides showing stages (scolex, immature, mature, and gravide proglottids)
Specimen in jar
Phylum Nematoda (roundworms) Exercise 37
-Characteristics= bilateral symmetry, very round body (due to hydrostatic pressure), true organ systems, triploblastic, complete digestive
tract (separate mouth and anus), pseudocoelomate (false cavity- not surrounded by mesoderm)
Ascaris
Not dissecting
Cross-section of male and female (Fig. 37.16)
o Identify structures and be able to tell difference between male vs. female
Cross-section of an esophagus
Turbatrix
Vinegar eels
Living example under dissecting microscope (no slides)
Movement= only have longitudinal muscles that run throughout the body (contract these against their skeleton and
it produces a whip-like motion)
Trichinella
Causes trichinosis
Cross-section through muscle tissue with Trinchinella larvae (Fig. 37.17)
Ancylostoma (instead of hookworm Necator genus in manual)
Hookworm
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Enterobius
Pinworm (Fig. 37.18)
Phylum Annelida (segmented worms) 2nd half of Exercise 38
-Characteristics= segmentation, bilateral symmetry, true organ systems, triploblastic, complete digestive tract, coelomate (body cavity
surrounded by mesoderm), classes are different based on amount of setae (bristle-like appendages)
Class Polychaeta “many setae,” parapodia (used for movement and respiration)
Nereis
Slide of parapodia with setae
Specimen in jar
Sea mouse
Specimen in jar
Class Oligochaeta “few setae”
Lumbricus
Common earthworm (no living ones)
Cross-section slide showing different muscles (Fig. 38.14)
Differentiate between longitudinal and circular muscles
Earthworm dissection (Procedure 38.5, Fig. 38.13)
Be able to identify:
Pharynx
Esophagus
5 hearts
Crop
Gizzard
Intestine
Seminal vesicles
Class Hirudinea (leeches) no setae, reduced segmentation
No specific genus names to know
Bodies are flatter than other groups (dorsoventrally flattened)
Get nutrients by sucking blood (posterior and anterior suckers)
Whole mount slide (Fig. 38.15)
Specimen in jar
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