BIO 1306 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Sugar Glider, Biogeography, Gene Duplication

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Darwin is considered the founder of evolutionary theory because his ideas have withstood vigorous testing. Soon after the island of hawaii rose above the sea surface (somewhat less than one million years ago), the evolution of life on this new island should have been most strongly influenced by the founder effect. Three-spined stickleback fish (gasterosteus aculeatus) show variation in gill- raker length related to differences in their diets. Longer gill rakers function better for capturing open-water prey, while shorter gill rakers function better for capturing shallow-water prey. Sea urchins are broadcast spawners: they release their gametes into the water without courtship. Most causes of speciation are relatively slow, in that they may take many generations to see changes, with the exception of polyploidy. The first genetic material on earth was probably self replicating rna molecules. Observations: individuals in a population vary in heritable characteristics, organisms produce more offspring than the environment can support.

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