[BIOLOGY 1B] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (36 pages long!)

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7 Feb 2017
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Berkeley
BIOLOGY 1B
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Biology 1B 1/18
Course Coordinator (academic issues, lab concerns):
Joshua Povich
Email: povich@berkeley.edu
Office: 2002 VLSB
Admin Coordinator (enrollment, lab attendance, DSP, student athletes):
Brett Boltz
Email: bboltz@berkeley.edu
Office: 3057 VLSB
Class is webcast!!!
Midterm 1: Thursday, Feb 16, 7-8 PM
Midterm 2: Wednesday, March 22, 7-8 PM
Midterm 3 and Final: Monday, May 8, 8-11 AM
REGISTER FOR LEARNING CATALYTICS!!! (Before Friday)
Nachman (Evolution) OH: MTW 9-10 AM (VLSB 5045)
Roderick (Ecology)
Feldman (Fungi and Plants)
Read assigned chapters before lecture!
Biology is constantly changing.
Exam questions primarily from lecture, as well as from the book.
Lecture Notes
-origin of universe is 13.8 billion years ago with a big bang
-singularity from which all matter expanded
-difficult concept to get head around
-should be some background radiation that emanated from origin of the universe
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-microwave signal: radio antennas-->constant background hiss
-origin of milky way: 13.2 billion years
-origin of the Earth: 4.5 billion years ago
-origin of life on Earth: 3.8 billion years ago
-Earth represents about a third of history of the universe
-life has occurred for most of history of Earth itself
-talking about very long time scales
-origin of anatomically modern humans was about 200,000 years ago
-represents very short time on Earth
-humans have been around for a very short period of time on Earth relative to other life
-humans represent only 0.00005 of the time of life on Earth
-humans: small twig of diversity of life
-life descended from a single common ancestor
-life arose just once, through process of descent with modification gave rise to diversity of
species today
Evidence that all life descended from a common ancestor:
-all life composed of same macromolecules
-chemistry produce different macromolecules, but all life has common macromolecules
-common mechanisms of DNA replication
-DNA copied in intricate process involving many components, but happens more or less the
same way in all life
-common metabolic pathways
-take genes in yeast--> can knock those genes out, replace with human counterparts of gene, and can
continue to thrive
-show that they can still function
-common genetic code
-DNA consists of bases AGCT-->transcribed into RNA< then translated into protein
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